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The numerals could also be reduplicated, by repeating the last syllable of the numeral concerned when a numeral is reduplicated, it has a distributive function, for instance.
lakhìkhì `one by one/one each’
`four each/four by four’ etc. Animate-inanimate correlation
It may not be out of place to mention here about certain restrictions, in the selection of adjectives which is correlated with the animate/inanimate class of nouns, i.e., the same concept may be expressed by two different lexical items depending upon whether or not the determined noun refers to an animate or inanimate being, etc. Given below is a couple of words having such restrictions.
Noun inanimate being Noun animate being
`big’ akizéu akicyu
akaw kiceme/kitemi
The adjective akizéu `big’ can occur with a noun referring to an individual. In such an occurrence, it has the special meaning of `great’ as in :
`timì akizéu `the great respected person’
whereas akizéu `big’ when used with nouns referring to the inanimate beings, refers to the size of the object i.e., `big’ in opposition to `small’. Both kicemi and kitemi `old’ occurs with nouns referring to animate beings while the word kicemi is a relative term indicating that the person concerned is older than the ego, kitemi indicates finiteness, i.e., a person who has crossed the age of sixty. This term could also be used for very old animals. Thus the word kitemi is used when specifying a particular person or animal.
3.4.2. Adverbs
An adverb was defined as that sub-class of invariables which at the syntagmatic level functions as an attribute of a verb and is capable of functioning as the nucleus of an adverb phrase consisting of an intensifier and an adverb. Sub-classification
On the basis of their semantic domain, the adverbs in Sema could be subgrouped into three viz., adverbs of manner, adverbs of time and adverbs of location. These are abbreviated respectively as advm advt and adv1, a few examples of these are given below.
Adverbs of manner (advm).
ppasi `quickly’
alhoxuthu `always’ etc.
`Adverbs of time (advt)
isi `today’
thi `tomorrow’ etc.
Adverbs of location (adv2)
tile `there’
hile `here’
kúsolo `yonder/far’ etc.
The sub-grouping of the adverbs had to be done on a semantic basis, as no formal criterion either on the paradigmatic axis or on the syntagmatic axis is available for the sub-grouping of the adverbs. For one thing, all the adverbs are invariables and it would be seen presently that when two or more adverbs occur within a VP, there is no word order amongst the adverbs, ie.., the different sub-groups of adverbs can occur without any restriction in the word-order. The entire adverb phrase, whether it consists of a sole adverb or two or more adverbs, is invariably pre-posed to the verb, as in :
tile isi úwya or  
  `went there today’
isi tile úwya  
isi tile ppasi or  
tile isi ppasi or  
isi ppasi tile or  
ppasi isi tile or `úwya `went there quickly to day’
ppasi tile isi  







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