Download Sema Book

(c) ikìlo úlò `go to my house’
tile ulò `go there’ etc.
It might be noted that these derived adverbs substitute only adverbs of location and not the adverbs of time and manner.
The nouns/pronouns having other case relationships are not considered as derived adverbs, as they co-occur with all the three sub-types of adverbs, rather than substituting them as in :
(a) ino li ithulu
`I saw her’
  ino isi tile li ithulu `I saw her there today’
(b) ino isi li sas asi cúwà
  `I ate meat with her today’
ino tile isi ppasi lisas `today I ate meat there
asi cúwà.
quickly with her’
The intensifiers have the function of giving force or emphasis to the item with which they occur. The intensifiers in Sema were defined as a closed class of indeclinables that are capable of occurring in attributive construction with both the adjectives and adverbs. Therefore, there are two intensifiers in Sema. These are : yöFono1 and kötö. There are certain restrictions in their occurences, in that yöFono occurs with adverbs and qualitative adjectives whereas kötö ordinarily occurs only with the quantitative adjectives and never with the adverbs. The intensifier kötö also occurs with the particle for superlative degree, ú and the combined form occurs with a qualitative adjective. Another restriction in their occurrences is that the intensifier yöFono is pre-posed to the adjective/adverb with which it occurs, whereas kötö is invariably post-posed to the adjective with which it occurs. A few illustrtive examples are given below.
yono anyue yono ppasi powe `the child ran very quickly’
anuye yono yono ppasi powe `the child ran very very quickly’
asbo yono kize lakhì
`a very big tree’
anu kutumo kt
`too little water’
awiye amekuso ktú
`mithun is the costliest animal’

1. Yono `very’ has another form, viz., iono which is in free variation with Yono.
ekiliye azukiwi ktú
`Ekili is the most beautiful girl’ etc.
Having discussed the intensifiers, we move over to the last of the invariables in Sema, viz. Particles, which is discussed in the next section.
A particle was defined earlier as that part of speech which formed a sub-group of invariables not falling under the grammatical classes of adjectives, adverbs, intensifiers, postpositions including the case relation markers. The particles in Sema would thus include the function words like eno `and’, mu `neither’ etc. No attempt is made to sub-group the particles further into emphatic particles, interrogative particles etc. A few particles along with their meanings are listed below.

(plural marker)
ai ~ i
hu (emphatic particle)
(causative marker)
ma, kyá, kyè, a (interrogative particles)
mú, ku (nominalizing particles)
eno `and’
mu `neither’
momu `or’ etc.
3.5. Phrases
Traditionally a phrase was defined as a group of words occuring often without a finite verb. For the purpose of this grammar, a phrase is defined as a sequence of words belonging either to just one grammatical class or to two or more grammatical classes having the relationship of satellites and nucleus. A phrase may also be realized by the nucleus alone without any satellite. The four classes of phrases set up for this language are : adjective phrase, adverb phrase, noun phrase and verb phrase. A brief discussion of the constituents of these phrases follows :
3.5.1 Adjective phrases
An adjective phrase is a phrase with an adjective as its head as in :
(ilimì) kiwi kutumo
‘many good (dames)’
(ilimì) kiwi kini ‘two good (dames)’







Sema Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer