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               1             2 
Drawling-inU Æ pe ­
‘(do) play, (if you like)’
             1         2
Clipping-inUpe ­
‘(go and) play (why are you standing here?)’

1.11. Summary of the phonemes , with principal allophones:
     Munda has the following consonant phonemes: p,b,t,d,,,c,j,k,g,m,n,,r,l,s,h.
     Among the vowel phonemes are: a,e,i,o,u, each of which may also become non-syllabic.
     Junctures are two : plus and terminal.
     Intonation levels are three and three contours : 1, 2, 3, ; Æ ,­, | .
     All consonants except /ø/ and// occur initially before a vowel.
     All consonants except /h/ occur medially.
Only b, d, g, m, n, , r and l occur finally in a word. The occurrences of the different consonants within a word can be tabulated in the following way:
(i) Between space and a vowel : /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, //, //, /c/, /j/, /k/, /g/, /m/, /n/, /l/, /r/, /s/ and /h/.
(ii) Between vowel and a vowel: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, //, /·/, /c/, /j/, /k/, /g/, /m/, /n/, // ,/l/, /r/ , and /s/.
(iii) Between vowel and a consonant: /p/, /t/, //, /c/, /k/, /n/, //, //, /m/, /l/, /b/, /g/, /d/, /r/, //, and /s/.
(iv) Between consonant and a vowel: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /t/, //, /c/, /j/, /k/, /g/, /r/, /l/, /s/, /m/, and /n/.
(v) Between consonant and a consonant : /b/, /d/, /g/ (rare).
(vi) Between vowel and a pause: /b/, /d/, /g/, /m/, /n/, //, /r/, /l/.
No consonant occurs (a) between pause and a consonant, and (b) between consonant and a pause.
All the five vowels occur in all the three positions.
Among the important allphones are the pre-glottalized [b] and [d] occurring finally or before a consonant, the glottal stop [?], an allophonic variation of /g/, finally and before a consonant. Again, is the flap [r], an allophone of [] occurring intervocalically, after a nasalized vowel and in conjunct with a consonant. Before another plosive, the unvoiced /p/, /t/, //, /k/ and /c/ have allophones in complex sounds with a vocalic release or a transitional vowel. In positions ¹CV-V¹, or ¹V-VC¹ the sound p, t, , k have long allophones, i.e., added duration of contact.
Nasalization is diphonemic and belongs to both /n/ and /N/.
Among the vowels the most striking is [], an allophone of  /a/ in positions , or ¹/C /¹, i.e., due contact with /u/ or /i/ in preceding syllable. Inervocalically /i/ has allophone in [y] and /u/ in [w]. Sequence of two indetical vowels is a long vowel.
Among the non-phonemic feature are stress for emphasis, prominence or glottalizaiton. The contour pitch or stretched (musical) pitch are both redundant. There are also dependent segments or [y] and [w] glides, where the former is heard between i-a, e-a and o-e, while the latter between 0-a, u-a and a-o.
1,19. A note on orthography: The unit or the utterance occurring between two plus junctures is to be treated as a word, this is to be marked by space in orthography. The semi-free





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