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(a) Impersonal constructions: 

: bulu-ko mena?
 ‘There is salt’
 : bulu-ko bano?
‘There is no salt’

(b) Personal construtions: /baN/ is used as intranstive root with the meaning ‘not to be existing’:

bajanae ‘he has been non-existent’

Pronominal object in reflexive sense has been illustrated by Hoffmann (P.174):

banaijanae ‘he has become on more’

In participal form /baN/ may be used in phrases within a sentence or a clause: 

ena-apu ba-ko leka ‘as if there are no father and mother’

4.2.3. Negative with /alo/ : An affirmative sentence in imperative or moods marked by /k/, is changed to negative by the use of the particle /alo/ ‘don’t. Use of /alo/ is realized syntactically in the following manner.
(a) Negative imperative: The following marker /me/, and add /m/ to /alo/, then place it before the verb.
(i) Remove the imperative marker /me/, and add /m/ to /alo/, then place it before the verb.
(ii) Suffix the imperonal /a/ to the verb root, more particularly if the root has not been derived for any voice.
lelo?me ‘look!’
alom lelo? ‘don’t look’

But, alom lela ‘don’t look’

The elliptical form takes /a?/ as the impersonal and expresses general forbidding - 
aloma? ‘don’t (do)!’ 
(b) Negative precative (concessive or optative): The following rules are employed for this purpose:
(i) Remove the mood marker /ka/ from the verb phrase and suffix it to /alo/, then place it before the verb.
(ii) Remove the pronominal suffix from the verb and suffix it to the alo-phrase.
(iii) Suffix the impersonal /a/ to the verb root, more particularly, if the root is not derived for voice.

‘let him see’
alokae lela
 ‘don’t let him see’

The elliptical form takes /a?/ as impersonal with the alo-phrase-

alokaea? ‘don’t let him (do)’

As a reported speech or in form of intention, negative optative may be used in third person -
alokae sena mente-enere kamirikajadmea (Hoffmann, P. 171) ‘he make you work here so that (you) may not go’
Here, /alokae sena/ is in third person as it is intended that ‘one may not go’, etc.
 4.3. Transformation rules for questions:
A simple statement can be transformed into one of the two major types of questions which may be either yes-no type or interrogative type. A question is employed where an answer response is expected. Transformation rules differ for the two types of questions. Intonation pattern undergoes a change in most cases after these transformations.
 4.3.1. Yes-no type questions:
Such questions expect reply in either yes or in no, and may be used without or with markers.





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