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13. /w/    vs    /b/


1.3.4. Tone contrasts

1. level tone x high tone

‘to see’
‘to steal’
‘this morning’
/gķ mur/
‘wrong deed’
‘to fry’
‘get in’
‘to bark’
‘to boil’

2. Level tone x low tone

‘to bark’
‘excitement of the testicles’
‘foot step’
‘to lean something against the wall’
‘to collect’
‘rooting of a pig’

3. High tone x low tone

‘to boil’
‘excitement of testicles’
‘to get in’
‘to whistle using fingers’
‘to kick’
‘to lean something against the wall’

1.4. Allophonic distribution
1.4.1 Vowels

It has two allophones [i] and [I]

[i] Occurs initially and medially in high and level tones.


[I] Occurs accompanied by low tone and infinal position.


2. High mid front vowel /e/

It occurs in all positions


3. High central retroflex vowel /ė/.

In it production, the dorsum of the tongue is raised towards velum. The tongue muscles are bunched. It is a retroflex vowel. It has only one allophone [ ļ ] and it occurs in all positions.


4. High mid central retroflex vowel / ė /.

The tongue is retracted and the blade is raised in the mouth. It is a retroflex vowel. It has two allophones [ ė ] and [E]. In high level tone [ ė ] occurs. [E} is a mid-low front vowel, and is accompanied by a low tone.

‘at / to’







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