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The Purposive
     The Purposive is expressed by (a) adding duno ‘for’ and less commonly (perhaps not entiely correctly because it marks the cause of a negative result), vano ‘for’ to the future participial form of the verb (b) postposing the quotative o ‘that’ to the future indicative form of the verb (c) suffixing -o to the verb and (d) by zero. Notionally although all of them express purpose in a weak or strong sense, the first mode is particularly purposive, while the second expresses the speaker’s own will and purposive determination to do the action, the latter being identical to one of the Dravidian modes of expressing the purposive. The (C) mode is for actions which are already in progress and is unidirectional interchangeable with the first two modes i.e., whenever the (C) mode is used, the first two modes could be used while neither the (a) mode nor the (b) mode is interchangeable with -o. The last mode namely the structural zero, possible only with a restricted set of verbs, signals the temporal adjacency of the two actions. Illustrative examples of each of the four modes follow :


1.  ai1 niyi2 kade-ko-ru duno3 he4 pra-e 5
    I1 came5 to meet3 you2 /for meeting3 you2


 a1 na2 em bi bi yes3 modo-ko-ru duno4 maisuur5 -li6 ta7 le8
    my1 son2 will8 go7 to6 Mysore5 to study/for studying4 MBBS2


 larübvü1 hrü-ko-ru duno2 a3 pfo-no4 ayi5 raka6 pi-e7
    my3 father4 gave7 me5 money 6 for buying2 books1


 oho1 she-ko-ru duno2 ni3 a45 he6 vu-hio7
    you (sg.)3 come7 to6 my4 house5 for pounding/to pound2 paddy1


 a1 pfü2 nana-yi3 pfü-ko-ru duno 4 vu-e5
    my1 mother2 came5 to carry/for carrying away4 (the) baby3 pick-a-back4


1. ai1 ozhi le-o2 ta-ie3
    I1 want3 to sleep2


 kahini1 kaikho-yo2 ko le-o3 pfo45 he6 ta-i-e7
    To call3 Kaikho2 , Kathini1 went7 to6 his4 house5


adahra1 odo shu la-o2 vu-i-e3
    Adahra1 has come3 to transplant plants 2


 ni-yi1 sa le-o2 ai3 vu-e4
    I3 came4 to take2 you1


 manini1 oni2 le-o3 pfo45 he 6 vu-e7
    Manini1 came7 to6 his4 house5 to celebrate3 (the) festival2


ni1 caandel2 -li3 ta le-o bu4 -li5 ive6 hru-lino7 ta hoco pha-e8
    if5 you (sg.)1 are to go4 to3 Chandel2, (you) have to go8 thru7 (the) forest6


1.  ai1 imela2 modo-o3 he4 vu bu-e5
    I1 have come and am5 here4 to study3 Mao Naga2


 ahikho1 fubaal2 kokru-o3 imeli4 vu-e5
    Athikho1 came5 to Mao4 to play3 football2


 ahia1 oho2 she-o3 cü he4 vu-*ie5
    Athia1 has come5 home4 to pound 3 paddy2


 ·aiho1 odzü da-o2 korü3 -li4 vu-i-e5
    Daiho1 has come5 to4 (the) river3 to swim2


1 kaisü1 odzü akhrü2 ta-i-e3
    Kaisü1 has gone3 to swim 2


 pfo1 kokru2 ta-e 3
    he1 went away3 to play2


 ai1 cohõ2 o-ko o3 hoel4 -li5 ta-e6
    I1 am going6 to5 (a) hotel4 to eat3 something2


 nipuni1 nikhini-yi2 ko3 ta-e4
    Nipuni1 has gone4 to call3 Nikhini2


 adani1 avu2 ta-i-e3
    Adani1 has gone3 to take food2

The last example is slang but distinctly possible. Structurally, for the first mode, the subjects of the embedding and embedded sentences need to be co referential, whereas they need not for the rest. Thus in


 okho1 hrü- { ko-ru duno }2

  ayi3 kasha4 pi-o#5

{ *le o }


{ *-o }


{ *O }

  give5 me3 money 4 for buying2 fish1  

the unexpressed subject of the imperative is ni ‘you (sg.)’ whereas the subject of the verb hrü ‘buy’ is ai ‘I’. All the modes of expressing the purposive





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