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except the first viz. that of adding duno/vano ‘for’ to the future participial form of the verb are, therefore, ungrammatical. A further example would be


ovo1 so { -ko-ru duno }2

hiu-li3 -ko0 opha-hi4 maci-e5
  { *la o }  
  { *-o }  
  { *ų}  

morning3 (is) the right5

time4 to (do)2 work 1

where opha ‘time’, the subject of the embedding clause (identified in terms of the diagnostic correlate of hi, the particle of emphasis) and the unexpressed subject of the embedded clause can not be co referential ; only the first mode is therefore grammatical. Further, the main or embedding clause must be in the indicative mood for all but the first mode. The following sentence has its main clause in the deontic mood so that only the first, and none of the others, is possible.

ni1 caandel2 -li3 ta { -ko -ru duno }4

ive hru-li-no5 ta hoco pha-e6

{ *le o }

{ *-o }

{ *-ų}

to go4 to3 Chandel2 , you (sg.)1 have to go6    thru’ (a) forest5

If, however, a quotative purposive clause is embedded in a clause with a finite verb, it is felicitous. cf. the last example under (b) where o is a quotative embedding a purposive clause.

The Infinitive
The infinitive is expressed by (1) zero (2) by -kolo, -koco and -co followed optionally by duno/vano ‘for’ and (3) by the participial form of the verb, signaled by the prefix ka


1.  ai1 nikhrumüi2 hopfü3 kade { ų }4 asa shu-e5
    {-kolo -hi}  
    { -co -hi}  
    I1 am happy5 to meet4 you (incl. pl.)2 all 3  

 ni1 cihi2 nie { ų}3

asa shu-i-e4

{(-ko) lo duno}


{ koco duno}

(I)    am happy4 to get3 your1 letter 2  
  3.  rübvemüicü1 bu { ų }2 covo yi-te3  
    {koco (duno)}  
    it is pleasurable3 to be2 in Punanamai1  

 ai1 ni2 pfo kathi-sü4 co {ų}5

  ale mazhi-te6

{koco duno}




I2 am sad 6 to hear of 5 your2 father’s3

  5.  ovo1 nie {kolo (vano)}2 pfo3 raku zhü-te4  
    {? lo - O}  
    he3 was fortunate4 to get2 (a) job1  
  6. ai1 niyi2 ka-pi3 cohü ko kali4 ho-e 5  
    I1 do not have5 anything4 to give3 you (sg.)2  
  7.  ai1 ni peno2 ocü3 ta-ų4 ni-we5  
    I1 want5 you2 to go4 home3  

 The Continuous Participle
     The Continuous participle expressing an action simultaneous with the main verb is marked by -pfo and -ō/-ō, the former being more common and preferred. Unlike in English, the finite verb follows the participle. The actions could be discrete even while occupying the same unit of time or could be indistinguishably unitary (egs. 189.4-6). In the latter case, they are adverbial in function.



 kaini1 khi- {pfo} 2


{ ō /ō}

    Kaini1 went3 knitting2






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