Download Mao Naga Book



 ni1 candel2 -li3 vu le4 ili-li5 ive6 heno7 (kata) phae8 (takoo)
  if 5 you (sg.)1 have/are to go4 to8 Chandel2, you (sg.) ought/have
  to go skirting7 (the) forest6 (heno means ‘around, from around’
  not exactly through the forest and ta ‘to go’)
6.  ni1 sodu2 ofis 3 -li4 kovu phae 5
  you (sg.)1 ought to come5 to4 office3 tomorrow 2 (vu ‘to come’)
7.  lona-hi-no1 a2 napüi-yi3 monoco phae 4
  he1 ought/has to marry4 my2 daughter3 (mono : ‘to marry’)
8.  imüi-hi1 ozhi2 maci3 soo2 kobu phae 4
  one1 ought/has to be4 behave2 -(ing)4 oneself 3 (ozhi so ‘to behave’)
9. ni1 koto phae2
  you (sg.)1 ought/have to eat2 (to ‘to eat’)
10.  onamüi-no opfü opfo-yi kolico phae
  children1 ought to/have to look after3 (their) parents2 (koli ‘to look after’)
11.  ata1 kokruco phae2
  we (excl. prn. & excl. pl.)1 ought/have to play2
The Non-deontic Obligative
     The Non-deontic Obligative mood expresses the amoral indispensability of the action and is more forceful than the deontic mood. It is expressed by the complex v-mo-li shü- where v stands for verb - which means ‘if (li) not (mo), it is bad (shü)’. Literally - only literally - then, this complex added to the finite verb of the sentence would mean that if the action suggested by the verb is not gone through, undesirable consequences may follow. Although the grammatically crusted formal expression has not quite yielded a noncompostional meaning, the literal meaning no longer penetrates native speaker consciousness.


1.  sodu1 ni2 mikrü-li3 bu 4 mo-li shüe5
    you (sg.)2 should/must5 be4 in Imphal3 tomorrow1


pfota1 vu2 mo-li shü le3
    they (excl. pl.)1 should/must 3 come 2


 lopüi1 ico2 to3 mo-li shüe4
    she1 should/must4 eat3 now2


 ocü (i)rü mo-li shüe
    ‘it should/must rain’


 ahisü1 a2 napüi-yi3 mono4 mo-li shüe5
    Athisü1 should/must5 marry4 my2 daughter3


 ata1 pfo-yi2 kasa so3 mo-li shüe4
    we (excl. prn. & excl. pl.)1 should/must4 make friends with3 him 2


 ni1 pe2 mo-li shüe3
    you (sg.)1 should/must3 speak up2


 kaikho1 ata-yi2 duno3 kokru4 mo-li shüe5
    Kaikho1 should/must5 play4 for3 us2

A cogent piece of evidence v+mo+li+shü is not straight forwardly syntactic and has become frozen as a part of the subliminal self of the native speaker is that there is no v-li-shü, which should logically be the negative counterpart of v+mo-li shü. (The negative of this mood is v-shü See


*1a.  sodu1 ni2 mikrüli3 bu 4-li shüe5
    yo (sg.)1 should/must not5 be4 in Imphal3 tomorrow2
  *2a.  pfota1 vu2 -li shüe 3
    they (excl. pl.)1 should/must 3 come2
  *3a.  lopüi1 ico2 to3 -li shüe4
    she1 should/must not4 eat3 now2
  *4a.  ocü (i)rü1 -li shüe2
    it should/must not2 rain1
  *5a.  ahisü1 a2 napüi-yi3 mono4-li shüe5
    Athisü1 should/must not5 marry4 my2 daughter3
  *6a  ata1 pfo-yi2 kasa so3 -li shüe4
    we (excl. prn. & excl. pl.)1 should/must not4 make friends with3 him 2
  *7a  ni1 pe2 -li shüe3
    you (sg.)1 should/must not3 speak2
  *8a.  kaikho1 ata-yi2 duno3 kokru4 -li shüe5
    Kaikho1 should/must not5 play4 for3 us2
The Dubitative
The Dubitative mood which expresses doubt of varying degrees about the proposition is signalled by amolo suffixed to the verb.





Mao Naga Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer