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10. ai1 indira gaandi-yi2 ni-oie3
‘I1 have seen3 Indira Gandhi 2 (so I will not come now to see her or something)’
11.  ai1 pfo2 oko3 hinahi4 ayi5 pe-oie6
‘my1 father2 has told6 me5 this4 story 3 (so don’t narrate the same story to  me or something)’
12.  lijisa-no1 osa2 inai3 sübvü4 -likhi5 ho-oie6
‘Lijisa1 has kept6 that3 cloth2 in (the) box4 (so don’t worry about it or something)’
13.  pfo-no1 omüi-yi2 duno3 thi-oie4
  ‘he1 has died4 for3 people2 (so he has nothing more to accomplish or something)’
14.  ·ili1 ·elli2 -li3 vu-oie4
  ‘Dili1 has been4 to3 Delhi2 (so he will not come now or something)’
Notice the last two examples which have intransitive predicates.


Accomplishment : With some verbs, oi takes on the meaning of accomplishment.


 ai1 okhe2 kali3 soha-oie4
  I1 have killed4 a3 tiger2


Thoroughness : oi implies thoroughness of action.


1.  ai1 pfo23 hu-oie4 I1 have visited4 his2 house3 as a guest4
    lit. I1 have guested4 his2 house3


2.  bas-no ayi she-oie ‘(the) bus hit me
as opposed to    


1a.  ai1 pfo23 hue4
    I1 visited4 his2 house3 as a guest4
    lit. I1 guested4 his2 house3


2a.  bas-no1 ayi2 she3
    (the)4 bus1 hit3 me2

would mean respectively that the subject enjoyed the hospitality thoroughly dilatorily by probably staying there for a couple of days and that there was  a touch of thoroughness about the accident, it probably being a head-on contact whereas the aorist forms by contrast indicate no thoroughness: that the subject visited the house for an insignificantly brief period of time, for a few moments and that the bus no more than grazes past the object in a side-on contact.

Accidentalness; oi could imply accidentalness with some verbs.


1. bas-no1 izho2 ayi3 she-oie4
    the bus1 hit4 me3 (accidentally)4 today 2


 bas-no1 izho2 ayi3 she4
    (the) bus1 hit4 the3 today2 (the driver doing it deliberately) 4


omi-no1 anao-yi2 di-oie3
    (the) fire1 happended to touch3 (the) child2


a.  omi-no1 onao-yi2 die3
    (the) fire1 touched3 the child2 (deliberately3)

The following which present transitive verbs being marked for the perfective by -*i, are all ungrammatical :


 *to-ie ‘have/has seen’
  *sho- ie ‘have/has drunk’
  *rü- ie ‘have/has written’
  *koli- ie ‘have/has seen (as film)’
  *da- ie ‘have/has beaten’
  ni- ie ‘have/has seen’
  kade- ie ‘have/has met’

These forms are, however, felicitous in another sense. See, the Mood of Unexpected, Surprising Action.

Future perfective is indicated by the future tense marker le followed by oi, i, one of the perfective aspect markers for intransitive verbs, does not occur in the future tense.


1.  pfo1 khi vu-oi2 le3
    he1 will3 have come back2


*2.  pfo khi vu-i le6


6.  pfo1 khi vu-i 2 le3 would mean
    he1 will be3 coming back2






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