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stem as well as a word. Form like óá ‘brothers’ is also a word in Lotha consisted of a stem and suffix i.e. ó-á. Form like frò ciá ‘dogs’ or ‘those dogs’ is a phrase consisting of two words i.e. frò and cá. frò is a stem as well as a word. cá is a word consisting of a stem c ‘the or that’ and plural suffix á. Therefore, in Lotha, morphologically a word may consist of only one stem or more than one in which case it may be followed or prefixed by some affixes, but affixes alone do not constitute a word. In the examples like frò cá ‘those dogs’ frò sáá ‘these dogs’ c and sá are free forms as they can occur freely as in the following examples.

1. -n     sá   chk
   I-nom   this  like
or I like this
     sá   -n     chkt
    this  I-nom   like
2.  -n    c        chk
     that   I-nom   like 
or I like that
c     -n      chk
that  I-nom    like

Word classes in Lotha :
  Word classes in Lotha are established on the basis of morphological and/or syntactic grounds. Stem classes in Lotha can be divided into different groups on the basis of the inflectional endings. Forms which show identical inflectional behavior can be called as form class. Accordingly, Lotha words are divided into following groups, 1) Nouns 2) Pronouns 3) Adjectives 4) Verbs 5) Adverbs 6) Conjunctions. 7) Postpositions. Out of the above word classes, nouns, pronouns and verbs are established on the morphological grounds and rest of the word classes on the syntactic grounds. Above mentioned word classes are also broadly grouped into two categories on the basis

whether they are declinable and rest are indeclinable. Morphological processes found in Lotha are purification, suffixation, reduplication and compounding. Morphophonemic changes that take place with the alternant of morphemes (i.e. a morpheme is a minimum meaningful unit equivalent to a stem in Lotha) when they occur with various kinds of suffixes are listed in Chapter 2 on ‘Morphophonemic’.

  Definition of a noun:
  A noun in Lotha is defined on the morphological and/or syntactic grounds as follows :
1. Any stem that can take a number marker,

  NOTE 1. Stems referring to Kinship take the plural marker directly, if stems are qualified by the modifiers, number marker is added to the modifier (or to the noun phrase) and not to the noun. (For details please see 3.7)

NOTE 2. Since number markers are added to the modifiers (or to the noun phrase) adjectives, quantifiers and such other modifiers may take a plural marker, on this count, they may not be considered as nouns. (For details pl. see 3.7)
2. Any stem that can take gender word or marker (Note that only animate nouns take the gender word or a marker. For details pl. see 3.5).
3. Any stem that can take a case marker or other post positions.
NOTE 1. that postpositions also take case markers but they are not nouns as they always occur after the nouns and never occur independently.

NOTE 2. Morphological grounds listed in 1,2 and 3 are also applicable to pronouns.







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