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4. Any stem that can take an article.
(Note that proper nouns do not take an article in Lotha)

5. Any stem that can be preceded by the genitive or followed by the noun attributes such as adjectives, numerals. (Note that 4 and 5 apply only to the nouns).

Classification of nouns :
  Lotha has two types of nouns (1) Basic (2) Derived.
  Basic nouns :
  Nouns which are not derived from another noun or any other word class are called basic nouns.

1. pnóy teacher
2. thérà flower
3. f dog
4. sóts elephant
5. h hen
6. ms cow
7. h tooth
8. vcrò sparrow
9. wókò pig
10. leaf
Basic nouns can be further divided into (1) Mass nouns (2) Count nouns. Mass nouns are those which are always used in singular. Count nouns are those which can be counted or used in plural.

Examples of Mass Nouns :
1. óc water
2. érù rain
3. ótsì rice (cooked)

Examples of Count Nouns

1. leaf
2. h hen
3. pnóy teacher
4. vcrò sparrow
5. thérà flower

derived nouns :


  In Lotha, nouns are derived either from the verb or adjective or from another noun. Derivation is dealt in detail in 4.9.

  Contraction of nouns :
  In Lotha, some of the nouns have two types of forms (1) Full form and (2) Contracted form which is obtained by dropping the Classifier1 i.e. Õ. Contracted forms occur when they are preceded by the genitive form of the pronoun or followed by gender marking words. Nouns which undergo contraction may belong to either animate or inanimate nouns.

Examples of nouns when preceded by the genitive form of the pronouns :

1. ‘father’  my father
n your father
mp his father
2. ‘house’ k my house
n k your house
mp k his house
3. ‘field’ l  my field
n your field
mp his field


1. It is called classifier because it occurs with certain nouns. Nouns which take classifier are listed after the examples. (List is restricted to the data available).







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