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C. When the verb is used with the probability mood and optative mood markers

1. -n hnr ts-kà
I-nom bread eat-probability
   I may eat bread

2. mp ts-t
He eat-let
    Let him eat

Use of present tense marker is optional in the following case
When the verb is used with the negative marker

1. -n ótsí n-ts-là
I-nom rice neg-eat-present
-n ótsí n-ts
I-nom rice neg-eat
I do not eat rice
I am not eating rice

4.3.2. Past tense :
  Past tense refers to an event which happened before the time of the utterance. Past tense marker is chò.

1. np°-n¡ ¡kì r°-chò
She-nom my house come-past
    She came to my house

2. -n ótsì ts-chò
I-nom rice eat-past
    I ate rice

3. -n mscá h-chò
We-nom cow pl see-past
   We saw cows

4. Jn-n kákò c kh-chò
John-nom book the read-past
    John read the book

  5. mp-n kákò mhm c kh-chò
He-nom book good the read-past

6. n-n hnrì ts-chò
you-nom bread eat-past
    You ate bread


4.3.3. Future tense :


 Future tense indicates the time preceding the time of utterance. Future tense marker is -v. This tense marker is not added when the verb is used in the future perfect aspect. Examples for future tense are as follows :

1. -n ótsì ts-v
I-nom rice eat-future
   I shall eat rice

2. -n w-v
We-nom go-future
    We shall go

3. Jn-n cà r-v
John-nom tomorrow come future
   John will come tomorrow

4.4. Aspect :
  "Aspect is a grammatical category of verb which has nothing to do with the location of an event in time but with its temporal distribution or contour"1 Aspect is not relative to the time of utterance. It indicates duration, perfect, habitual etc.

Lotha has 3 aspects
1. Perfective aspect
2. Durative aspect
3. Habitual aspect


1. Hockett, C.F. A Course in Modern Linguistics, Indian Edition, Published, in 1970, pp. 167.








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