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As said above (4.1 ) the structure of the verb in Lotha is as follows :

Verb Stem + Tense marker

Tense marker occurs in the end. If there are other markers like aspect, causative etc, they occur between verb stem and the tense marker as shown below :

1. causative verb has the following structure.
    Verb stem + causative marker + Tense marker

2. Verb stem with the aspect marker has the following structure
    Verb stem + Aspect marker + Tense marker

  a. Use of past tense and future tense markers is obligatory when the aspect marker is used.

b. present tense marker is absent in the present perfect when the aspect marker is used.

3. Structure of the verb in negation is as follows :
    Negative marker + Verb stem + Tense marker

When a verb is used in negation by prefixing a negative marker, use of present tense marker is optional.

4. Structure of the interrogative verb is as follows :
+ Verb + interrogative marker - Present tense marker .

a. In the present interrogative verb structure, there can be a sentence with or without a verb and with or without a present tense marker.

mp lò ? Is he here
he here Interrogative
mp c lò ?  Is he there
he there interrogative

In the above sentences, there is no verb ‘to be’ and no tense marker.

b. In the following example the verb is present but without present tense marker.

-n          nk          r-lò ?
I-nom    your house   come-interrogative
Shall I come to your house ?


4.1.1. Classification of Verbs :


 Verb stems can be classified into simple and compound.4.1.1. (a) A simple verb is composed of a single root with or without a suffix.

1. kh¡ read
2. ¡n¡ ts°¡-là
I-nom eat
   I eat
3. kh¡-là  (I) read
4.1.1. (b) A compound verb consists of mored than one root and may include one or more suffixes.

1. sà-tà rule
2. z-à count (imp)
3. z-tà look (imp)
4. c-tk cause to eat
5. kh-tk cause to read

Verb stems can also be divided into three subclasses on the basis of their morphological and syntactic function. They are 1. Intransitive 2. Transitive 3. Causative


4.1.1. (c) Intransitive


Intransitive verbs are those verbs which do not take a direct object.







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