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2. lóy thmpò
    woman another another woman
3. f thmpò
    dog another another dog
  3.10. Case : Definition and Classification
  Case is a grammatical category which expresses the semantic relations between a noun phrase and the predicate. In Lotha case relations are expressed in three ways :
1. By the addition of case markers
2. By the absence of case markers
3. By the addition of post positions.

Following cases are noticed in Lotha, (1) Nominative (2) Accusative (3) Instrumental (4) Dative (5) Benefactive (6) Allative (7) Ablative (8) Sociative (9) Genitive (10) Locative
3.10.1. Addition of markers :
  Nominative, Instrumental, Benefactive, Sociative cases are formed by the addition of markers. Nominative :
  This case is used with the subject of the sentence. The subject is either a noun or a pronoun. This is the case which expresses the subject. This occurs with the verbs whether they are transitive or intransitive.

Nominative markers are -n, -y and -n. -n occurs with nouns as well as pronouns irrespective of thee verb whether it is transitive or intransitive. In pronouns, it occurs with all persons and is in variation with -y which occurs only with the first person pronoun.

1. -n mp lthá-chò
    I-nom him kill-past I killed him
2. mp-n ótsì ts-là
    he-nom rice eat-pres He eats rice
3. Jhn-n mhór-c ltht-là
   John-nom tiger-the kill-pres John kills the tiger
4. n-n kth phánthyà-là
    you (sg)-nom when get-pres When do you get up ?
5. mp-n cl pá-là
    he-nom there sleep-pres He sleeps there
6. -y ótsì ts-là
    I-nom rice eat-pres I eat rice
 -n occurs only with the second person pronouns and it is in variation with -n¡.
1. n-n kl vn-là ?
you (sg) nom where live-pres  where do you live ?
2. n-n nty lyá-là ?
you (sg)-nom what do-pres what do you do ? Instrumental :
  This case is used to denote the instrument with which the action is performed. This case is expressed by -nà.
1. -n kíp c yòncàk-nà r-chò
I-nom door the metal-by break-past
he broke the door by a metal.
2. mp-n óló-n mp sá-là
he-nom stone-by dhim hit - pres
he hits him by a stone.







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