Download Hmar Book
/lá/ ‘a marker for present perfect progressive’
This occurs preposition ally to the present tense verb forms and co-occurs with /lái zì/ which marks past progressive; they all together indicate that the action has been going on for quite some time. Since Hmar does not distinguish present perfect from past, /lai/ in this environment could be construed as present only. Examples-
/kà lá th lái zì/mè:k/ ‘I have been doing’
/ì lá hrìl lái zì/mè:ik/ ‘you have been telling’
/a la pék lái zì/mè:k/ ‘he/she has been giving’
 /èl/ or /èl thèi/  ‘may’ 
This occurs postpositionally to the present tense verb forms to add the sense ‘may’; another function word /thèi/ marking future generally follows it. Examples-
/a th èl thèi/ ‘he may do’
/kà fá:k èl thèi/  ‘I may eat’  
/tà/  ‘a marker for total completion in conditional sentences’
This occurs preposition ally completion in conditional sentences to suggest the possible completion of actions described in the sentence. Examples-
/ká th tà dí bàh/ ‘I would have had done’
/í hrìl tà dí bàh/ ‘you would have had told’
/á thàt tà dí bàh/ ‘he would have had killed’
Closing Remarks on Function words
 Function words represent a close of words. They are limited in number. It is not possible to add new entries to this list. The above is only a sample list to give an idea as to how the function words function in Hmar. There may not be any second opinion about the status of the functions words carrying case functions but there may be a dispute regarding the status of those listed under the verbal category. Some scholars may not like to call them as ‘function words’ They may like to call them ‘particles’ or ‘post positions’. But these terms merely describe their syntactic word order, not the grammatical function. Because of their, presence only the verb forms could signal the involvement of the agent, patient or instrument, and so on in the accomplishment of the actions specifying accurately the time, mode and aspect of the happenings suggested by the verbs. Therefore, it is logical to call them as function words as opposed to content words.
Types of Derivations
Derivation4 plays an equally important role in Hmar. It is employed as a morphological process to form new words from existing ones. As in most other languages derivation here also could be discussed under tow major heads:
1. Class-changing derivation, and
2. Class-maintaining derivation.
Class here refers to the word classes that have been dealt with before. Of these two types of derivation, the former is more productive than the latter.
Class-changing Derivation
Class-changing derivation implies derivation of new words of one class from words belonging to another class. For example, derivation of nouns from adjectives or derivation of verbs from adjectives, and so on, come under this category. Such derivations are accomplished, in most cases, by suffixation and in a few cases, by prefixation. Given below are a few specific cases.
Derivation of Adjectives from Nouns
Like many other languages, Hmar also has a mechanism to derive a few adjectives from nouns. This is done by suffixation. The following suffixes are commonly used.







Hmar Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer