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It is a general tendency in Hmar that in full sentences the rising and falling tones are carried by the verb and auxiliaries; other elements normally carry the level tone. The following examples could be seen:
/hú rh/ ‘come’
/và fé rh/ ‘go there’
n thàt nh/ ‘they donot kill’
/zá:m rh/ ‘go away’
n zà:m/ ‘they fled away’
Marking of the tone is necessary when words occur in sentences. In isolation, words may occur in level tone only. Example-
/fe:/ ‘go’
/hu/ ‘come’
/that/ ‘kill’
The tone of a word in a sentence may differ from that of the same word in isolation. When other forms are added to construct larger forms tone generally gets altered. The following examples could be seen :
/sìem/  in isolation means ‘make’,
/síemà síemì/ calling a person ‘Siema or Sìemi’
/ròusíem/ when it forms a complex form with another form preceding it, and
/lálróu sìem/ when it forms a compound with another complex form preceding it.
The tone of the second constituent in the last example remains same as that in the first example as the first constituent is a complex one and the second constituent begins as a fresh one.
Following the above scheme of tonal representation, tones are indicated in the examples in this Grammar. The tone representation here represents the speech pattern of the Hmar as spoken in Assam-Manipur area.
Hmar possesses altogether 32 speech sounds, 11 vowels of which one has a slant towards an active diphthong /ou/ and 21 consonants. Hmar speech sounds closely resemble those of other sister languages of Kuki-Chin group such as Mizo and Kom.
The vowels in Hmar could be represented in the following table as per their point and manner of articulation. It may be seen that 5 vowels manifest both short and long varieties. A very short dipthong /ou/ sound, represented in the alphabet as [o] manifests only short variety. However it is conveniently combined with other vowels to produce other dipthong sounds where [o] tends to take the place of []
Front Central   Back
high i i: u u:
high-mid e e: o:
low a  a:

Hmar seems to form dipthongs and tripthongs as under:

/ie ei ui uo ou ai au eu iei uou and uoi/







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