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Complex verbs
Complex verbs


We will have detailed discussion on each of the above subcategories in the next chapter.

3.1.2 Function class of words
The function class of words are those that do not have semantic contents of their own, but can alter, modify or add specific meaning to the accompanying content words. Thus, they are meaningful when they accompany other content words. In Hmar, function words play a very important role. Various case relationships, tenses, aspects. moods etc. are marked by various kinds of functions words that mostly occur as post-positions and sometimes as pre-positions. Thus, the function words in Hmar could be discussed under the following tow catergories :
Post-positions, and
We will have detailed discussion about their forms and functions in the next chapter.
3.2   Nominals
Four categories of the content class or words could be discussed under the major word-class ‘Nominals’. They include :
Of these four categories, nouns constitute a major content class of words under Nominals in Hmar.
3.2.1 Nouns
They function as the head words in the Nouns Phrases, in short, NP, and they carry a lot of grammatical information. Nouns are generally classified into proper nouns, common nouns, abstract nouns etc., But these donot have much relevance from structural point of view and, therefore, such classifications are avoided here.

Nouns in Hmar show some kind of inflection for number gender and case. Closely connected with number is the feature of marking for definiteness-cum-classification of the nouns on the basic of size, shape and some specific quality, Neither number not gender is purely grammatical but yet, they have some degree of grammatical relevance. Case is also not very clearly marked by affixation; in most cases, case relationships are realised by the use of post positions. However, case relationships are syntactically relevant. Number of Nouns
Hmar does not make any distinction between count nouns and mass nouns, It rather makes a distinction between nouns of general reference and those of specific reference. In general reference base forms, that is, bare noun roots are used. In specific reference it shows a two-way contrast in terms of number such as singular and plural. The singular forms are identical with bare roots which are used in general reference. The plural forms are derived from the root forms by a morphological process of suffixation.

The plural morpheme could be conceived as {-hai} which has an allomorph {-daùm}. The use of these two could be discussed under.


The plural forms of the nouns as and when required are constructed from the root forms by suffixing {-hai}. This suffix is invariably added to all nouns-animate or inanimate, human or non-human, mass or count. Given below are few examples :







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