Download Hmar Book
Grierson, G(1903) in The Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. III. Part-III has given a brief account of Hmar. Here, he has given some specimen of the language as spoken at that time.
Bapui, (1994) in his ‘Account of Hmar’ mentions this.
Authorities like Songate, Hranglien (1958) and Keivom, Louis L (1990) made this observation.
Duwara (1988) has also mentioned two major dialects of Hmar such as Khosak and Khothlang; the former has 15 sub-dialects and the latter 17. (pp 203)
/sè, lé, nè and dè/ tend to take /-e:/ form when used singly.
{-lóu} and {-bóu} which are variants of {ló:} and {bó:}
respectively are used as suffix s for indicating negative status.
This feature is common to neighbouring Indo-Aryan langauges like Assamese and Benagli.
 Hocket (1976) has mentioned various approaches to linguistic analysis of which ‘Item and Arrangement’ is one. This concept has been taught in most of the linguistic courses in India, but nobody seems to have used this concept and this term in practical linguistic analysis of any language.
 In sentence (1), the word ‘ìncàtir’ and ‘ka’ have conveniently been combined/contracted. Similar combination is always resorted to when the noun expressing the doer/actor ending in a vowel and the beginning with a vowel sould are involved. Similarly-
a. /ìnfètír/ ‘caused to go’ /ká:nfètìr/ ‘I allowed x to go’
/ìnth:tír/ ‘caused to do’ /ká:nth:tìr/ ‘I caused x to do’
ka + in = ka:n
b /ìnúmtìr/ ‘caused to stay’ /í:nùmtìr/ ‘you caused x to stay’
/ínfá:ktìr/ ‘caused to eat’ /í:nfà:ktìr/ ‘you caused x to eat’
/índ:ntír/ ‘caused to drink’ /í:nd:ntìr/ ‘you cause x to drink’
/i+in/ = /i+i:n/ = /ii:n/
Similarly, /á:nfà:ktìr/ ‘he/she causes x to eat’
c) But in case of plural, the above does not hold good. For example :
/kán ìnfètìr/ ‘we cause x to go’ (exclusive of hearer)
/éi ìnfètìr/ ‘we cause x to go’ (inclusive of hearer)
/án ìnth:tìr/ ‘they cause x to do’
/ánnì ínfà:ktìr ánìh/ ‘caused to eat by them’
Derivation here is not used in historical sense which studies the etymology of the words. Derviation is used here in a purely descriptive sense as a morphological process of deriving one word class from the other or generating new words of the same class.
This is in conformity with the contents described under section
This type of partial reduplication of words is noticeable, in recent days, in respect of some borrowed Aryan words. As these words are being gradually absorbed in Hmar, this type of reduplication also becomes an accountable feature.







Hmar Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer