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 Wide ranging variations in both pronunciation and morphological constructions and high degree of flexibility in word-order or synaptic constructions are two marked characteristics of Hmar. They came to stay because of inevitable historical and sociolinguistic reasons. As indicated in the ‘Introduction’ of this book, there was no solitary concentration of Hmar speaking people nor was there any long term peace and tranquility among the Hmars living in various pockets scattered over three different states. In the earlier days they were always on the move and in the later days, they had to settle down in far flung hilly terains with most unfavorable living conditions spread over three states and to toil hard for their survival among various hostile tribal groups. Because of natural geographical barriers coupled with political polarisation there were not much of interactions among the Hmars living in these 3 states; viz: Mizoram, Manipur and Assam. Because of ethnic closeness and political dominance the Hmars in Mizoram have been heavily influenced by the Lushai. Consequently the Hmar speech in Mizoram has lost mcuh of its indegenous characters or ingenuity. The Hmars in Manipur and Assam, however, could maintain their linguistic identity and protect their langauge from corruption. Of these the Hmars in Assam could, however, organise themselves and could make the Govt. of Assam to introduce Hmar in Primary education. They have been making significant efforts to standardize the langauge, bring out text books and grammars in Hmar. They have been orgainising orientation programmes for teachers and holding seminars and workshops in order to attain standardization of Hmar. They only have taken initiative to revise and modify the Hmar version of the Bible done in the early part of the twentieth century. Therefore, it may be ncoveniently concluded that Hmar is currently under the process of standardisation. Fortunately, the efforts of standardization is characterised by openness. Minor variations in pronunciations, grammatical forms and syntactic structures are being widely accepted. The varsion of Hmar described in this grammar represents the Hmar of Assam-Manipur region which is under the process of standardization.
From what have gone before the most important salient features of Hmar could be outlined as under. The contrast of vowels in terms of length, presence of rising and falling tones and initial occurrence of /*/ are its noticeable phonological characteristics. The reduplicated use of demonstrative pronouns both before and after the noun, predicative occurrence of adjectives, reduplicated use of subject pronoun1 both in the subject slot and in the predicate slot, extensive use of post positions to mark case relationships, marking of tense, aspect etc. only by compounding of auxiliaries and inflection of adjectives and adverbs for degree are its major amorphological features. Negativization, simple interrogativization and imperativization by further addition of auxiliaries to the verb or sequence of verbs, passivization and generation of echo questions only by modulation of sentence intonation, precedence of subordinate clause or embedded sentences, and cumulative addition of the constituent clauses in the natural sequence of happening/incidence to form compound sentences are the most prominent syntactic peculiarities.







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