Download Bhumij Book


The adjetive eŋga is used for feminine gender both in animals and in birds; the adjective aia is used for masculine in animal and the adjective sai in birds as shown below :



‘male horse’
eŋga  sadm  ‘female horse’
aia  merom  ‘male goat’
eŋga  merom  ‘female goat’
aia  seta  ‘male dog’
eŋga  seta  ‘bitch’
sa sim  ‘cock’
eŋga  sim  ‘hen’
sa putam  ‘male dove’
eŋga  putam  ‘female dove’
sa hai  ‘male fish’
eŋga  hai  ‘female fish’

However, for bull and cow, these adjectives are not used for gender distinction. There are separate words for these terms. gai ‘cow’, seo ‘bull’.



There are three numbers in Bhumij : viz., singular, dual and plural. Singular marker is optional; dual and plural markers are kin and ko respectively. Generally, the singular noun is followed by the suffix -a. This suffix is added optionally with the noun as in jo-a ‘fruit’, kaji-a ‘a word’.


Dual number -kin

akin ‘they’ 

ia - kin ‘two (neuter)’
ni - kin baria h  these two two boy
‘these two boys’
ni - kin baria kui hon

‘These two girls’

these-two two girl  
bi - kin mena ‘Two books are there ’book two are
b - kin mena - kin man - two are - PT ‘Two men are there’


Plural - ko


‘men, people’
kui - ko ‘ladies’
jo - ko ‘fruits’
bi - ko ‘books’
baba - ko ‘paddy crops’



The words for numerals in Bhumij include native words as well as borrowed words from Oriya. The numerals upto 6 are native words and beyond 6 are from Oriya. The higher numerals like one hundred, two hundred etc., are formed by the combination of both Bhumij and Oriya words as mon so ‘one hundred’, bar so ‘two hundred’ etc. Fractions have no separate words but expressed as one part of the four parts for quarter and as such. On the whole numerals of Bhumij show the free mixing of Oriya words.




baria 2
apia 3
upuia 4
moea 5




Bhumij Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer