Download Sema Book

iulo kumu kha `I have nothing with me’ (lit. I hand in nothing no) etc.
 123  4     5    1  2     3          4    5

Allomorphs of the pronouns
1.  The I and II person personal pronouns ni, no have an oblique form without the initial consonant. The oblique form occurs with different items when these pronouns form part of the predicate. The oblique form also occurs when these pronouns function as a determiner, as in :

ni `I’ no `you (sg)’
i `I’ (oblique) o you (sg) (oblique)
ic give me’ ocöke `gave you’
iki `my house’ okģ `your house’ etc.

In addition, in the case of the I person pronoun, the oblique form also occurs before the nominative case marker no, as in :

ino śwya `I went’

2.  The third person masculine personal pronoun pa has another allomaph viz. panó which occurs before the plural marker ´ł. In all other situation pa occurs.
3.2.3. Numerals
The numerals in Sema were formally defined as that grammatical class which form a sub-class of nominal capable of taking case markers and preceding post positions, but are incapable of occurring in its uninflected form as the sole realization of a NP1 and at the systematic level, the noun would be the nucleus of a NP consisting of a noun and a numeral. The sub-grouping and the morphological constructions of the numerals in Sema are discussed in the following paras. Sub-classification
On the paradigmatic axis, the numerals in Sema may be sub grouped in the first instance into two, viz., (i) those consisting of a single form/morpheme (i.e. primary ones) like lakhģ `one’cöFe `ten’ etc., and (ii) those consisting of two or more forms/morphemes (i.e. secondary ones) like muku kini `twentytwo’etc. A brief discussion of these follows.
Primary numerals
The following are the primary numerals available in Sema :

lakhģ `one’ kh `three’
kini `two’ bidģ `four’
po´u `five’ c `ten’
c `six’ muku `twenty’
cini `seen’ sF `thirty’
tacč `eight’ akhč `hundred’
koku `nine’ aslyč `ten thousan’

aslyč originally meant only countless, but not used to refer to `ten thousand’ Secondary numerals : types of combinations
All the numerals in Sema except the ones listed above under the primary numerals are secondary numerals. The constituents of a secondary numeral may have different types of relationship with the other constituents. Depending upon this relationship the secondary numerals in Sema can be sub-sub-grouped into four. These sub-sub-groups along with their relationships amongst the constituents are stated below.
(i)  The constituents showing the relationship of summation, as in:

c `ten’ + khakhģ `one’ ctFekhakhģ `eleven’
muku `twenty + kh `three’ mukuthķ `twenty three’
s `thirty’ + kģ nģ `two’ sFékini `thirty two’ etc.

All the numerals from 11 to 19, 21 to 29 and 31 to 39 show this type of relationship viz., summation, between their constituents.
(ii) The constituents showing the relationship of multiplication

lho `ten’ x bidģ `four’ `lhobidģ `forty’
lho `ten’ x pou `five’ `lhopo´u `fifty’
akhč `hundred’ x kini `two’ akhčkini `two hundred’ etc.

The multiples of ten from 40 to 90 and multiples of 100 show this type of relationship between their constituents.
(iii) The first two constituents showing the relationship of multiplication and the resultant form showing the relationship of summation with the third one, as in :

lho `ten’ x bidi `four’ = lakhģ `one’ lhobdģ lakhģ `fortyone’







Sema Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer