Download Sema Book Morphological construction
On the basis of the information given above, it would be possible to establish the morphological construction of the personal pronouns, which is :
root    +    number    +    case.
This would give a total of our morphological constructions, as in :

root alone no `you’ (sg)
root + number no´ł `you’ (pl)
root + case olaw `to you’ (sig)
root + number +case o´łlaw `to you (pl)’ Sub-classification of the pronouns
On the basis of both the function as well as the different grammatical categories that the pronouns take, it would be possible to set-up a few Sub-classes of pronouns like : personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, possessive pronouns, relative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and indefinite pronouns. A brief discussion of these follows.
(1) Personal Pronouns
The personal pronouns function as replacements for co-referential noun phrases in the neighbouring (usually the preceeding) clause.
The first and second person personal pronouns in the singular and dual have two sets of forms, the full forms when occurring as the subject of a verb and a clitic when occurring as part of the predicate. The nominative forms are ni `I’ and no `you’ (sg), while the corresponding clitic forms are without the initial consoant, viz., i `I’ and o `you’ (sg). When these forms occur as the direct object of a verb, the clitics are prefixed without pause to the verb or to the dual marker. The clitic form also occurs when these pronouns occur as a determiner in a determiner-determined construction (i.e., in the possessive function), for instance :

pano iithuluwe `he saw me’
pano iluzo ithluwe `he saw us (dual)’
pano oithuluwe `he saw you (sg)’
pano kakulakhģ ocöwe `he gave you a book’
pano kakulakhģ okuzo ithuluwe `he gave you (dual) a book’
ikģ `my house’
okģ `your house’
opu `your father’ etc.

The first and the second person personal pronouns in the plural and the third person personal pronouns, in their different numbers have the same shape when occurring both as the subject and the object of a verb and also as the determiner in a determiner-determined construction, as in :

pano nił ithuluwe `he saw us’
pano nół ithuluwe `he saw you (pl)’
ino pa ithuluwa `I saw him’
ino li ithuluwa `I saw them (dual)'
li panół ithuluwe `I saw them’
li niłkģlo iFe `she come to our house’
li pakģlo iFe `she came to his house’ etc.

(2) Reflexive pronoun
The reflexive pronouns normally replace a co-referential noun phrase in the same finite verb clause. In Sema, in conjunction with an invariable form, viz. kuthosina `self’ the personal pronouns function as the reflexive pronouns. The same form viz. kuthosina `self’ occurs with the different personal pronouns and the pronouns (the oblique forms wherever available) precede the reflexive marker, as in :

hiye ikuthosina sikč `I made it myself’(lit. it (specific) I self made)
hiye ił kuthosina sikč `we made it ourselves’ etc.

(3) Possessive pronouns
The possessive pronouns combine genitive (on par with the nouns and in the same manner) with the pronominal function. Wherever the oblique forms are available the possessive pronouns
1. Marrison states that self is expressed by the word aliki and contains the same sense alone, as in :

niye iliki igwoFi `I came myself’

This seems to be literary translation of an emphatic statement I and I alone came, i.e. none else. The word aliki means `alone’ as in :

niye olikhi khiwe monanģ `I will not let you alone(lit. I (specific) you alone not will)







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