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expresses the state of foolishness on the part of some one to have done certain thing
`oh yes’ it expresses 100% agreement of what the other has said or done
i chalè
roughly equivalent tot he Hindi expression ja! ja! it expresses the indifference of the listener to what the other says
expresses a pleasant memory when a III person is referred to in conversation.
The major type of sentences can be sub-divided into three, viz. simple, complex and compound, for instance :
1. ino únì `I will go’
2. pano zaye ino únì `I will go if he sleeps’
3. hatoli zwe eno ekili úwya `Hatoli slept and Ekili went’
In the illustrative examples given above, the sentence I consists of a single clause, while sentences 2 and 3 consist of two clauses each. Between sentences 2 and 3 both of which have two clauses, the sentence 2 consists of a principal clause and a subordinate clause and the sentence 3 consists of two principal clauses connected by a particle. The sentences 1, 2 and 3 are instances respectively of simple, complex and compound sentences. From this it could be stated that the criteria for sub-dividing the major type of sentences is the number of clauses each sentence has and the type of relationship the clauses within a sentences has amongst themselves. On the basis of these criteria, the three types of sentences can be formally defined as :
Simple sentence : Any sentence having a principal clause alone is a simple sentence in Sema.
Complex sentence : Any sentence having two clauses of which one is a principal clause and the other is a subordinate clause is a complex sentence in Sema, though sometimes the subordinate clause is not overtly expressed.
Compound sentence : Any sentence having two or more clauses of which at least two are principal clauses is a compound sentence in Sema.
Having defined the type of sentences occurring in Sema, it is proposed to discuss the components within each type of sentences.
Simple sentence
A simple sentence in Sema would normally have a subject and a predicate but one type of simple sentence would not have a predicate. Thus a simple sentence in Sema can be sub-grouped primarily into two sub-classes, viz., those having a predicate and those not having a predicate, as in :
(i) pa ipu `he (is) my father’
(ii) pa úwe `he went’
Of the two types, the ones that do not have a predicate consists of NP1 NP2 of which the NP2 could either be a NP including a noun as its sole realization or an adjective phrase including an adjective as its sole realization, as in :
hiye ac
`these are dogs’
1 2 3 4
(lit. this (focus marker) dog (plural)
1 2 3 3
ikìye kize
`my house (is) big’
Since the NP1 and the NP2 of sentences of this type refer to the same person/object, and since the NP1 indentifies the NP2, sentences of this type are designated as equative sentences.
The other type of simple sentences, viz. the simple sentences having a predicate can in the first instance be sub-divided into two, viz. (i) the ones having a VP with a locative verb as its head and (ii) the ones having a VP with a principal verb as its head, as in :
(i) iwu kakuqó hile anì kini
niye ikì kize anì
`my books are here’
`I have two big houses’ etc.
(ii) ipu úwe
ino pa ithulu anì
`my father went’
`I am seeing him’ etc.
A brief discussion of both these two sub-divisions of sentences having a predicate follows.
It was seen in the previous section (3.6.4.) that the VP with a locative verb as its head has two different types of structure, viz., NP + adv. + 1v and adv. +1v. Of these, the former is invariably a discontinuous unit whereas the latter is usually a continuous unit, but could occur as a discontinuous unit, as in :
(a) niye ikì kize kini anì `I have two big houses’
(b) iwu kaku hile ani `my books are here’
(c) hile iwu kaku anì `here is my book’







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