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Since the different types of computations and permutations that could form a NP in Sema have been discussed extensively here, in the subsequent sections dealing with clauses, sentence etc all occurrence of a NP would show a single noun/pronoun as the sole realization of a NP. It may be restated here that the particle Fi `also’ can be post-posed to any NP. Hence the occurrence of the particle `also’ with a NP would also not be discussed hereafter.
For the purpose of describing a verb phrase, the various forms of a verb including the modal, tense and aspect (which were already discussed in 3.3.5) and the compound forms of and the compound forms of a verb would be treated as on par with the uninflected form of a verb; the rules of combination of these sub-topics have been dissed in 3.3.1 and 3.3.5. Therefore the discussion of the verb phrase in this section is restricted to the occurrence of the verb head with the other grammatical classes like the noun/pronoun, adverb etc. A verb phrase (VP) in Sema may have as its constituent only a single verb, as in :
li úwya
`she went away’
In addition to a verb, a VP may have an adverb including a functional adverb as its constituent, as in :
niye tile ú
`I went there’
niye kipikìlo ú
`I went to the school’ etc.
A locative verb could substitute the principal verb of both types of VP cited above, as in :
li kusolo anì
`she is yonger’
li ikìlo anì
`she is in the house’ etc.
In addition to a verb and an adverb, a noun having sociative and instrumental1 case relations could also occur as a constitutent of a VP, as in :
liye pasas úwya
`she went with him’
For the ease in description, a noun/pronoun in the sociative or in the instrumental case relation is considered as verb complement (VC), rather than a NP. A VC could co-occur with all sub-types of adverbs, as in :
niye calakipecö li sas ú cé nanö
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
`I will be going with her daily’
1 7 6 5 4 3 2
niye tile isi ppasi li sas úcénì
1 7 3 4 5 6 7
`today I am going there quickly with her’
3 1 7 2 4 6 7
1. The instrumental relation is available only when the verb is in its intransitive construction
In all such instances, the adverbs that form the constitutent of a VP is pre-posed to VC and the VC in turn is pre-posed to the verb head. The examples cited above have a verb in its intransitive construction.When a verb is in its intransitive construction, a VP would also have a noun1 as its constituent, as in :
ino li ithulu anì
1 2 3 4
ino hatoli ithulu
ino isi hatoli ithulu
`I am seeing her’
1 4 3 2
`I saw Hatoli’
`I saw Hatoli today’
In such instances also, the adverbs forming a constituent of the VP is pre-posed to the NP which in turn is pre-posed to the verb head.
It was seen in the previous para that a VP with a verb in its intrasitive construction as the head could have a VC as its constituent. It would be presently seen that a VP with a verb in its transitive construction could also have a VC as one of its constituents as in :
ino aks lakhì pe li heqhi
`I beat her with a stick’
niye isi asi lisas cukè
`I ate meat with her today’
The illustrative examples given above have NA occurring both before and after VC. The Sema language which otherwise has a fixed word order permits this much of freedom in the word order between VC and NA of a VP.
When a VP has a diatransitive verb as its nucleus, in addition to the NA, the VP would also have a noun having the dative relations
Such a VP could have adverbs also as its constituents, as in :
ino kaku lakhì hatoli cwya
`I gave Hatoli a book’
ino thoyu c thaxa lono }
`I will give Hatoli a book at
1 2 3 4 5 }
10.30 morning tomorrow.
kaku lakhì hatoli c nanì }
(lit. I tomorrow ten half from
6 7 8 9 10 }
1 2 3 4 5
book one Hatoli give future)
6 7 8 9 10
Functionally the NA is the direct object (in this sentence item No.6) and NA as its constituents, NA is invariably pre-posed to the
1. Only a noun/pronoun having the accusative case relation can occur in this position. And such a noun is marked as NA. When the VP has a diatransitive verb, two nouns could form its constituent, i.e., one NA and another noun having dative case relation. The latter one is marked ND.







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