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III person personal pronouns do not have any oblique forms their occurrence is on par with the nouns, as in :
11 (a) pano aki sie `he built the house’
  (b) ak ye pano sie `the house was built by him’
12 (a) ino li heqhiwà `I beat her’
    (b)liye into heqhiwà `she was beaten by me’ etc.
The general and universal constraints in the use of the passive voice found with all other languages is also found with the Sema. The first major restraint is that a verb in the intrasitive construction can occur only in the active. Secondly even when a verb is in the transitive, a transformation from the active to passive is not possible if the verb is in the imperative mood. Any sentence having a verb, in moods other than the imperative, or in any aspect or in any tense could be transformed from the active to passive provided the verb is in the transitive. A few examples would illustrate this point.
13 (a) pano asi cúlunanì `he can eat meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúlunanì `the meat can be eaten by him’
14 (a) pano asi cúluwe `he could eat meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúlue `the meat could be eaten by him’
15 (a) pano asi cúluwi `he is likely to eat the meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúluwi `the meat is likely to be eaten by him’
Aspects :
(a) Progressive :
16 (a) pano asi cúanì `he is eating meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúanì `the meat is being eaten by him’
17 (a) pano asi cúay `he was eating the meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúay `the meat was being eaten by him’
18 (a) pano asi cúananì `he will be eating the meat’
  (b) asiye pano cúananì `the meat will be eaten by him’
Habitual :
19 (a) pa asi cúcey `he used to eat meat’
    asiye pano cúcey `meat used to be eaten by him’
20 (a) pa asi cúcenì `he eats meat’
    asiye pano cúcenì `meat is eaten by him’
In brief it may be stated that the transformation of a sentence from active to the passive is made basically by a change in the word order of the logical subject and the logical object with the continuing to take the nominative marker. In addition whilest int he passive the logical object of an active sentence, would take either the focus marker or the definite particle. Further when the first or second person personal pronoun is the object of an active sentence, they have the clitic form which is prefixed to the verb, whilest in the passive, they take the full form. The verb shows the same shape in both types of sentences. The universal restraints in the use of the passive is applicable also to the Sema language.
3.3.5 The Grammatical Categories of the Verb
All the known languages have some device or the other to signal the time and the duration of an action and also the attitude of a speaker towards that action etc. These are usually signalled by the verb through certain inflectional devices and/or through analytical devices. These devices are usually treated under the grammatical categories of the verb. The Sema language also makes use of certain devices to indicate a few grammatical categories of a verb. The grammatical categories available in Sema are : tense, aspect and mood. Beginning with the tense, the following sections would discuss the occurrence of the different grammatical categories in Sema. Tense
Time is a universal non-linguistic concept with three divisions, viz., past, present and future. When the verbs in any language, however, make use of certain devices so as to signal a correspondence with the universal concept of time, it is known as the grammatical category of tense. Sema also has the grammatical category of tense, which like any other language intersects with the duration of an action, known as the grammatical category of aspect (progressive). If the intersection of the time element with the aspect is







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