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Double causative
Semantically, one could also have a double causative, i.e. a person instigating another person to cause a work to be done by a third person, as in:
ieone nono pepelo asi cúpekè `I caused you to cause him to eat meat’
structurally, it could however, not be said to be a double causative because he noun/pronoun referring to both the first and second instigator would have the nominative case marker and the first instigator forms a part of the subordinate clause, viz., iFe´ono for me/because of me’, with the principal clause having only a single instigator, i.e., the second instigator.
Though it is possible to have the causative constructions of the type described above, ordinarily such constructions are not made use of except when the affected noun refers to an inanimate object or in response to a specific question which require the agent to be mentioned, for instance to the question.
khuúno aa thuúpe anì kya? `who is growing the child ?’
the response could :
lino aa thuúpe anì `she is growing the child’
In closing, it might be stated that basically there are two types of causative constructions in Sema, viz., agentive and non-agentive causatives. Of course, the former could have either one or two instigators. But the causative constructions as a whole are not favoured ones in Sema and are resorted to only when the affected noun/pronoun refers to an inanimate being or in response to a question which requires the instigator to be mentioned.
3.3.4. Active - passive constructions
The voice is a grammatical function which makes it possible to view the action of a sentence in two ways without changing the facts represented, as in
1. (a) acno imikiwe `the dog bit me’
  (b) niye acno mikiwe `I was bitten by the dog’.
2. (a) ino axamnuhu xowà `I plucked the flower’
  (b) axamnuhu ino xowà `the flower was plucked by me’
  (c) axamnuhu xowà `the flower was plucked’
The sentence 1(a) and 2(a) above are active and the other sentences are passive. Since the use of passive in Sema is slightly different from many other known languages, it is felt that a simple description of the usage in English may clarify the use of passive in Sema. In the undermentioned sentences 3(a) and 4(a) are active and 3(b) and 4(b) are passive.
3. (a) Hatoli saw Ekili.
  (b) Ekili was seen by Hatoli
4. (a) Ekili saw Hatoli
  (b) Hatoli was seen by Ekili
This relationship betwen the corresponding active and passive sentences was traditionally associated of such terms as are stated below (Lyons : 1974 : 376)
The object of the active sentences becomes the subject of the corresponding passive sentence. Thus Ekili is the object of 3(a) and the subject of 3(b) and Hatoli is the object of 4(a) and the subject of 4(b).
The verb is `active’ in `form’ in the more basic (active) `version’ and `passive’ in `form’ in less basic (passive) `version’. Thus `saw’ (action) vs `was seen’ (passive).
The subject of the active sentence is not necessarily `expressed’ (overtly represented); it takes the form of an adjunct marker as `agentive’ by means of case inflection or by the use of particular postposition : thus by Hatoli and by Ekili in 3(b) and 4(b) respectively.
“The term active and passive were used in two different senses in the traditional formulation of the three conditions listed above, in (i) and (iii) they were applied to sentences whereas in (ii) they were applied to the forms of the verb” (Lyon 74 : 374). As this point it may be advantageous to return to the examples in Sema given earlier and compare them with those of English. In Sema too :
a change in the word order of the subject/object of the active sentence takes place in the corresponding passive sentence.
the subject of the active sentence is not necessarily expressed (i.e., overtly represented) in the corresponding passive sentence.







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