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but this difference is indicated elsewhere in the sentence as the verb in itself does not undergo any change in shape for this purpose. Thus the verbs in Sema could be sub-grouped on two different axes, viz., stationary verbs vs mobility verbs and transitive vs intransitive verbs. While the basis for the sub-grouping of the verbs have already been discussed, the other features of a verb beginning with the causative constructions will be discussed in the following sections.
3.3.3. Causatives
The most typical role of a subject is agentive, i.e., the animate being instigating or causing the happening denoted by the verb. And the most typical function of the indirect object is that of a receipient, i.e., of animate being passively implicated by the happening or state, for instance, in the sentence :
li kaku lakhì icwya `she gave me a book’
li `she’ is the agent (subject) kaku lakhì `a book’ is the affected participant (direct object) and i `I’ is the receipient. What has been stated above is the typical subject/object relation. However apart from its agentive function, the subject also frequently has the aaffective role, elsewhere typically of the object, as in :
anaye thuú anì `the child is growing’
asbo ikiqi anì `the tree is falling’
It is also possible in Sema to have the affection wilfully caused by an external agent, as in :
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pano anu thuúpe an ‘he is growing the child’ etc.
In the two illustrative examples given above pano `he’ is the external agent, asöbo `tree’ and anu `child’ are the affected participants. In these sentences the verb takes the causative marker pe.
The examples of the causatives cited above are typical in the sense that the one in the affective role is not performing any action on its part, whereas the affected person could also perform the agentive role, as in :
ino lipelono kaku lakhì icpekè `I caused her to give me a book’
In this instance, the affected person has to perform an agentive role/action, viz., giving the book, (though involuntarily). We have thus two types of causative construction in Sema. Sub-classification : causatives :
The illustrative examples given earlier show that the affected person may or may not perform any action. This could thus be the criterion for sub-classifying the causative constructions in Sema, i.e., the causative constructions in Sema in the first instance can be sub-classified into two, viz., non-agentive and agentive causatives. Semantically, the non-agentive causatives are those wherein the affected persons/objects do not play any role while the agentive causatives are those constructions in which the affected persons/objects are obliged to perform certain role (though involuntarily). This semantic difference is correlated with the structural difference, as in :
pano ana thuúpe anì vs `he caused the child to grow’
ino papelo akmla sipekè `I cause him to do the work’
paye akmla siwà `he did the work’
ino pape mildi lakhì cepekè `I caused him to walk a mile’
paye mildi lakhì cewà `he walked a mile’
ino ekilipelono asi cúpekè `I caused Ekili to eat meat’
ekili no asi cúwà ‘Ekili ate meat’
ekilipelono kaku phipelò `caused Ekili to read the book’
kaku philò `read the book’
ekili kaku phiwà `Ekili read the book’ etc.
It is seen from the illustrative examples given above, that the causative marker pe occurs twice when the affected person is obliged to perform some action, i.e., the causative marker pe occurs with both the verb as well as with the affected person/object who is obliged to perform the action specified. This double occurrence of the causative marker is found both when the verb is in intransitive construction, the locative case marker lo occurs after the causative marker pe occurring with the noun (affected person/object) and when the verb is in transitive construction, the ablative case marker lono1 rather than lo occurs with causative marker pe.

1. It was seen earlier that the ablative case marker lono is a combination of locative and nominative case marker.







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