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be a combination of the ablative and the nominative case markers, marks the ablative case relation. The form lawno is used to mark this case relation only when the noun concerned is an animate being. When the noun refers to an inanimate being the form taken is lono, which again seem to be a combination of the locative and nominative case markers. A few illustrative examples are given below :
/lawno/ paye ilawno akuhu   `he got money from me’
niùye anelawno akhic }    
ithulu cenì }   `we get milk from the goat’
paye inailawno ie   `he came from Inani’
/lono/ pa akìlono ipei   `he came out fo the house’
anikaqóye asölono iq cenì   `the leaves fall from the tree’ etc.
lono is also used in the sense of within, as in :
ayikhe lakhì do lono iilò   `come within an hour’
1 2 3 4 5   6   (lit.
clock one time from come imp)
              1 2   3     4       5     6
7-c. Locative
As mentioned earlier, the locative case relation in Sema indicates the location of an item/person. In addition, it can also stand for a direction, if the direction/destination is a noun referring to an inanimate being. The locative case marker is lo. This case marker does not occur with nouns animate being class. A few illustrative examples of the use of the locative case marker is given below :
niù ye aphulo acenì `we live in the village’
niye alulo mla cenì `I work in the field’
niye kitami lulo mla cenì `I work in the other field’
muzothilo atu anì `(there) is a stone in the mango’
aawhu aslo o anì `the bird is sitting on the tree’
Given below are two examples of the ablative functions where the locative marker lo is used
askaye asmunilo cpawe `the boat was tied to the shore’
ikìlo yeolò `come to my house’ etc.
(ii) Post positions
In addition to the post positions which have been discussed so far, there are other post positions which also have the grammatical or the local functions of the case. As far as the Sema language is concerned, such postpositions also have the function of an adverb of place or time, i.e., either an adverb of place like tile `ther’ or an adverb of time like isi `today’ can substitute the entire NP consisting of the noun/pronoun + the postposition. Semantically they indicate a direction which may be either vertical or horizontal. Of these the vertical ones could be further sub-divided into two in terms of absolute direction vs. relative direction for instance :
panó ùno atukuptu sow `they jump over the fence’
ilhece anì  
accye ku´u anì `the sky is above’
In the pair of illustrative examples given above, the relationship of location in vertical direction is indicated by two postpositions, viz., sow and ku´u. It can be seen from the example that sow appeared when the vertical direction is relative to another object, viz., atukuptu `fence’ while ku´u appeared when the vertical direction is absolute. Such a distinction is not found in the case of horizontal direction, for instance :
iphiwilo olo `take a seat near me’
1   2       3   4 (lit. I near stay imp)
         1    2      3      4
ac ithikhawno we `the dog went behind me’
 1     2         3        4         1           4        3        2
pa alu puthasa `he went through the field’
  1    2      3         4     1    4        3                   2
pa alu homxa ù `he went around the field’
 1     2       3     4 1 4 3 2
pa zbumtha kuto mlawe `he worked upto midnight’
1           2           3        4 1 4 3 2
3.3. VERBS
A verb is the only member of the grammatical class of the verbals in Sema, A Verb in Sema was defined as that grammatical class which on the paradigmatic axis is capable of showing opposition in tense, modal and aspect and on the syntagmatic axis is the nucleus of a verb phrase. Both the morphological construction







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