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(iii) The Demonstratives
The Demonstratives in Sema also show a two-way opposition in number, viz; singular and plural. In the case of the demonstratives, the plural morpheme is not directly attached to it, rather an empty morph, viz; pa intervenes between the demonstrative root and the plural morphemes, as in :

hi `this’ hipaqó `these’
ti `that’ tipaqó `those’

hipaqóye ac kini               `these are two dogs’, etc.
We have so far seen that though plurality in Sema is basically the property of the noun phrase, it is applicable to the nouns, pronouns and the demonstratives in Sema. In addition, duality is applicable to personal pronouns human being class andoccurs occasionally with the nouns. It might now be pertinent to mention here that the grammatical category of number is not an obligatory grammatical category, in as much as the number of a noun/pronoun functioning as the subject/object of a sentence does not show any concord/agreement in number with any other grammatical class in Sema, for instance :

niye śwa `I went’
nikuzoye śwa `we (dual) went’
ni´ł ye śwa `we went’
apu lakhģ no kpkamihu kae `a boy caught the robber’
apuqó kpkamihu kae `the boys caught the robber’
apuqó kpkamiqóhu kae `the boys caught the robbers’ etc.

(iv) Allomorphs of the plural morpheme
(a) Singular : As mentioned earlier, the singular is left unmarked.
(b) Dual : kuzo It has a positional variant ma occurring after the III person personal pronouns, kuzo occurs after I and II person personal pronouns. köma and pama also occur after nouns non-human being class in some dailects and nouns human being class respectively.
(c) Plural : qó It has three positional variants, viz;
(i) li occurs in free variation with qó after anu `child’ as in : anuli ~ anunoqó `children;
(ii) ´   ł occurs with the personal pronouns. In this there is a slight overlapping in that the plural for the nouns usually refers to two or more persons/objects while the plural for the personal pronouns refers to three or more persons. This overlapping however, is ignored here.
(iii) qó occurs as the last constituent in a noun phrase including a demonstrative pronoun. The only particles that can follow the plural marker qó are the conjunctive particles, the particles showing the case relationships including the focus markers and the emphatic particles. Gender
The grammatical category of gender is applicable in Sema only to some nouns and to the third person pronoun in the singular. The nouns in Sema show a three-way opposition in gender, viz. common, masculine and feminine. While the base form itself indicates the common gender, the masculine and feminine gender, wherever applicable are marked overtly. The gender of the noun/pronoun, however, does not show any agreement in gender with any other grammatical class in a sentence in Sema. A detailed discussion of the occurrence of the grammatical category of gender in Sema follows:
(i) Nouns
Personal names. - While personal names referring to the male beings are not marked by any separate gender marker, all original Sema names of the women/girls take the feminine gender suffix /li/ as in :
Hatoli, Ekili, Tokhali etc.
Under the influence of Christianity, most of the children in the present generation are given various Christian names like :
Mary, Rita, Joan etc.
Hence the earlier pattern of differentiating the personal names of the males from the females by looking at the phonemic shape of the name (i.e. whether or not they carry the feminine gender suffix li) is no more possible.
Names of professions.- A few names referring to certain professions show a three-way opposition in gender viz. common, feminine and masculine genders. The common gender denotes both the males and females engaged in the profession. While the feminine gender refers to the women engaged in the profession, the masculine gender refers to the males engaged in the profession. Wherever the base form itself indicates the common gender, the word for boy/maid are suffixed to the base form of the noun.







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