as object do not occur after the verbs. In the case of transitive verbs, the object noun follows.

       Whenever there is a pair of verbs of which one is intransitive and the other is transitive, there is a formal and semantic relationship between them. The subject of the intransitive verb is the object of the transitive verb. The prefix s- is generally added to the intransitive base to derive the transitive. However there are pairs which are lexically related.



1. olbya ‘boil’
2. gulba ‘move’
3. khilba ‘bend’
4. khorba ‘to go round’
5. čhaqpa ‘break’
6. čhatpa ‘cut’
7. dukspa ‘burn’
8. loqpa ‘return’
9. iba ‘hide’
10. beya ‘open’
11. dukpa ‘keep’
1. a. skolbya
2. a. skulba
3. a. skilba
4. a. skorba
5. a. čaqpa
6. a. čatpa
7. a. tukpa
8. a. lzoqpa
9. a. zdoqpa
10. a. pheya
11. a. zakpa

      Same phonological changes take place when the prefix s- is added to the intranisitive base. As it is indicated earlier, all the transitive bases are not derived by adding the transitive prefix s-. When (1-4) and (1.a-4.a) are compared, it is evident that s- is the transitive prefix. In the cases of (5-6) and (5. a- 6.a), the prefix is dropped when the following consonant of the base is c
&. Cases like (8-11) and (8.a-11.a) are to be treated as idiosyncratic and they are lexically related.



     From the point of view of meaning, main verbs may be defined as a class of stems denoting the action or state of the subject noun phrase. Auxiliaries modify the action denoted by the main verbs. Auxiliaries are further classified into tense, aspect and mood (See for the definitions of mood and aspect

     Tense as a grammatical category is defined as showing different locations of an eavent in time (Hockett (1958: 237)). It has to do with the time-relation. The essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it relates the time of action, event or state of affairs referred to in the sentence to the time of utterance (Lyons (1968:305)). It is often supposed by the grammarians that the three way distinction of tense is a universal feature of human languages. Purki also recognizes three way distinction of tenses : past, present and future.
Past tense

     It has been remarked in ( that tense relates the time of action, event or state of affairs to the time of the utterance. Past tense may be defined as indicating the time antecedent to the time when the utterance is uttered (the utterance being made now).
     In Purki, past tense is expressed by the suffix s-. However there are cases in Purki in which the past teense is unmarked. In other words, certain verbs take -* as the allomorph of past tense morpheme.4


‘to saw’




‘to spin’









Purki Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer