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bv vs v
ōbv ‘cage’
ōv ‘banana’
ts vs dz vs c
ģts ‘male [as of beetles etc]’
ķdz ‘testicle’
ķc ‘jackal’
c vs ch vs dz vs j
ōc ‘stone’
ohģ ‘to knit’
ōdz ‘water’
ōj ‘globe ; earth ; world’
s vs z vs h vs š vs
ōs ‘wood’
z ‘spin [vt]’
ōh ‘powder’
kš ‘place with tropical/warm weather’
‘be good’
m vs n vs ŋ
ō ‘female genital’
[kōsō] kōnō ‘suffering due to ill-health’
ōŋņ ‘orang-outang’
l vs r
ōlō ‘song’
ōrŏ ‘basket, fairly long and made of bamboo or crane carrying used by all - men, women and children’
w  vs y
‘habitual aspect marker’
‘1. be good 2. be great’
ką ‘glory’

Syllabic Consonant
Consonants could be syllabic. The most common example is that of the bilabial stop [b] the syllabicised version of [bi] the choice mood marker.
ai to a b le ‘I choose to eat’
  to a b le  
ai to ma b le ‘I choose not to eat’
  to ma b le  

Additional Phonetic Material
     This section presents sets of words for pronunciation practice. We have, in the
preceding section, discussed, how Mao Naga sounds are produced. The following exercises will further help the learner differentiate the different tones and sounds and produce them as precisely as a second language learner possibly could.
2.5.1. Tones

Given below are examples of each individual tone. This is followed by a minimal set of all four tones to be practised with one tone as constant in a frame which has each of the four tones as the second component.
High tone [ó]
‘1.  cut hair Naga style
  2. feed animals while rearing
  3. cut off the top of a gourd so as to convert it into a container’
ōs   ‘swamp ; marsh’
ōc   ‘1.speech      2. case 3. tools’
ōv   ‘banana leaf’
nįnį   ‘baby’
ō   ‘place ; seat’
ś   ‘gaze [n]’
pģh   ‘grass, single and fairly tall’
ōkrķ   ‘odor ; smell’

Lower High tone [v]
hǔ ‘sing while working’


‘human male’






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