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The Sentence

 A sentence is a chunk of speech, a minimal constitute in normal discourse which is built up of atleast one independent or main clause (with or without a dependent or subordinate clause). A subordinate clause is not a constitute, but a constituent in a larger unit.

The sentence is typically, though not invariably, marked morphologically in Mao by the sentence-final e. This sentence -marker undergoes the following morphophonemic rules in its interaction with its vocalic environment, with the vowel that ends the word that precedes it.


  a.  identical vowel ą e
    + e (snt. mrkr)  
2.  le + e ą 


as in      
38.  ai1 ta2 le3  I1 will3 go2  
  pe + e ą pe    
  speak, say    
as in      
39.  pfo-no 1 pe2 he1 said2  
  u + e ą e (liquids/fric-)    
  eg. s* + e ą se    
as in      
40. hihi1 iniu2 -o3 -ko0 -se4    
  this1 (is) only4 (a) small3 village2    



Synaeresis or diphthongization. This rule subclassifies into (i) rising diphthongization and (ii) falling diphthongization
(i)  Rising Diphthongization
nonidentical front vowel + e ą Ve (rising diphthong)
eg. pi + e ą pie
as in
41  pfo-no1 ayi2 larübvü3 pie4 he1 gave4 me2 (a) book3
ni + e ą nie
as in
42  ai-no1 pfo-yi 2 nie3 I1 saw3 her2
(ii)  Falling diphthongization
a nonfront vowel + e  ą Ve (falling diphthong)
egs. vu + e ą vue
as in
43  a1 na pfoo2 vu-e3 my1 son2 came3
hrü + e ą hrüe
44.  ai-no1 okho2 hrü-e3 I1 bought3 fish2
ta + e ą tae
45.  pfo-no1 idu2 ta-e3 he1 went away3 yesterday2
da + e ą da-e
as in
46. ahie1 ni-yi2 da-e3 who1 beat3 you (sg.)2 ?
mo + e ą mo-e
47.  mo-e no


diaresis and deletion. V symbolizes a syllabic i.e., nondiphthongized vowel
e + e ą e
kro + e + e ą kroe
‘get down’ prog snt
khru + e + e ą khrue
go up prog snt
a steep incline mrkr
ta + e + e ą tae
go prog snt

as respectively in



kaikho1 kroe2


Kaikho1 is getting down2






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