Download Mao Naga Book


would mean ‘beat over and over again’. Otherwise, shu has an emotional tinge, the devoutness of feeling being stressed.

kralo-le }



 ‘thanks very much’

kralo shu-e }

tokru-te ‘very high’
tokru shu-e ‘very high (emotionally tinged)’
asa-te  ‘very happy (general and formal)’
asa shu-e  ‘very happy (specific and genuine emotionally)’

ha. This is, typically and not necessarily, descriptive of intensity of physical/physiological action or process.
ai1 carü2 ha3 le4  I1 will4 be2 very3 thirsty2
ai1 zhi2 ni3 ha4 le3  I1 want 3 to sleep2 very much4


larü amodomüi1 mani2 makrü3 -o2 rü-we4

students1 are writing4 very3 calmly 2

i This is descriptive of general, often, negative intensity
bas1 vu2 mo-i-e3  (the) bus1 did not3 come2 at all3


(i) li/lü. This is descriptive of the speaker’s unfavourable emotional disposition.

larübvü-na-i1 zhü-e2 ana3 so4 li/lü5 -e4

the book1 is good2 but3 is too5 long4


pfo-hi1 bo2 moso3 li/lü4 -e2

he1 cooked2 it for too4 long3


khrü. This is descriptive of the speaker’s unfavourable emotional disposition towards how entities taste (eg. salt)


 du. This has an elusive nuance of meaning.
cohü kali1 ho2 du0 there is nothing2 left1
no1 hihi2 so3 -sho4 du0 you1 do not4 do3 this2
1 he2 odzü3 ko0 ho4 du0 there is no4 water3 at all at2 home1
ari1 -sho2 du0 do not2 make noise1
pfo1 he23 le4 du0 (we) will4 write3 to2 him1
cüvemüi1 cu ta-ie2 du0 (the) thief 1 has run away2

The particle of contrast

o, oli are the particles of contrast. They occur with nouns and adverbs
357  1. ai-o1 sodu2 mikrüli3 lo4 le5 ni6 oli7 khiboli8 kro9
    I1 will5 go4 to Imphal3 tomorrow 2 and you6 go9 to Kohima 8

oli and -o are constrained in their co-occurence with subject NP’s

sbj NP1

 { o sbj NP2 oli }
{*oli o}
  {oli O}
{*o O}
{ O oli}

The particle of holisticity
     pfu and khri, both of which occur only with verbs, signal that the action is thorough, and holistic in some sense.


1.  ive1 di2 pfu/khri3 io-ie2
    (the) forest1 burnt2 completely3


 dzübvü1 hiu2 pfu/khri3 -oie2
    (the) pond1 dried up2 completely3


 ona1 ve2 pfu/khri3 pfo ta ie4
    (he) has done a thorough job of stealing (everything in the house)
    and taking it away


kheto1 to2 pfu 3 lo-ie2
    completely3 eaten up2 the rice1

The particle of piquant expectancy is na
359 1.  he1 ko2 na0
    come2 here1 (and there’s something I want to show you, tell you etc.)


 cohü kali1 bu-e2 na0
    there is2 something1


 he1 bu-o2 na0
    sit2 here1 (and, I will tell you something interesting etc.)


 oca1 sho-lo2 na0
    drink2 tea1 (it will get cold)






Mao Naga Index Page
FeedBack | Contact Us | Home
ciil grammar footer