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{ osa }



 ata1 {        }


{ *ata(müi)sa }


we (excl. prn. & excl. pl.)1 are



{ osa }



nita1 {        }


{*nita(müi) sa }


you (excl. pl.)1 are short2


{ osa }



 nikhrumüi1 {       }


{ *ni(khrumüi)}


you (incl. pl.)1 are short2


Mao Naga, however, is a non-pronominalizing Tibeto-Burman language. The restricted set of verbs that is marked pronominally is so marked as a matter of syntactic agreement; there is no incorporation of the pronoun as a word-forming strategy. An incorporated pronoun, as in some Tibeto-Himalayan languages and kuki-chin languages, is not a ‘copy’ or a ‘reflex’ of what is already there, but a primary linguistic object.

Valency-Role Markers
Valency-Role Markers mark at the same time the valency (the number of players) of the verb to whose root they are suffixed and the roles of players. Phrased differently, they mark the semantics of the verb in terms of its relationship with the other constituents of the sentence. Mao Naga has four such markers: lo, an suffix, pi, a semantically bleached lexical verb meaning ‘to give’, o- an being formal and uncommon pi and -o mark the same role, have the same meaning. -o obligatory, but optional and redundant, pi is obligatory when it is redundant and optional when it is not, and i is obligatory but redundant. The markers would be redundant in the sense that the nominal constituents of the sentence have the role that they do does not depend on the formal presence of the marker. Thus, in the following sentence, even without the verbal suffix -lo which marks the recipient role of the subject, the subject would still be the recipient.


ai1 kheto2 to-lo-e3

  ‘I1 ate3 rice 2


-lo denotes that the verb is two-participant and transitive, and that the (referent of the) subject of the verb
takes an entity (expressed by the direct object) into itself, it possession, jurisdiction, presumably for its own benefaction.


a.  alemo1 avu-lo-i-e2
    Alemo1 took his meal2


hreni1 hayi2 sho-lo-e3
    Hreni1 drank3 rice beer2


 a1 na-no2 nazhi3 kali4 hrü-lo-e5
    my1 son2 bought5 a4 shirt3


 pfo1 na nieo-no2 izho3 praiz4 kali5 ni-lo-e6
    his1 son2 got6 a5 prize4 today3


 pfo-hi1 nana-yi2 pfo-lo-i-e 3
    she1 took3 the child2


 a1 kasamüi-no2 angaami3 na4 kali 5 ciku/koku-lo-i-e6
    my1 friend2 adopted6 an5 Angami3 child4


 kolamüi-no1 imela2 modo-lo-i-e3
    (the) plainsmant1 learnt3 Mao2


a1 pfo-no2 cokibu3 caca4 hrü-lo-e5
    my1 father 2 bought5 eight4 chairs3


 lokho1 opa2 kali3 hra-lo-e4
    Lokho1 plucked4 a3 flower2


 pfo-no 1 a2 heno3 kasha4 cope-lo-e5

    he1 borrowed5 money4 from3 me2

(2) a.


pi ‘to give’ in its new nonlexical role as a valiancy-role marker of another verb is a vector verb. Following as it does the main verb, it indicates non-redundantly that the verb is two-participant (not necessarily transitive) and that the (referent of the) subject is the transmitter rather than the receiver and performs the action depicted by the verb for someone other than himself or other than the speaker in the case of imperatives. b. -o also means the same as pi, but -o is restricted in use.



a.  ni1 larübvü2 pi3-o4 -da5
    give3 your1 book2 to someone other than me (the speaker)4 o.k. ?5


b.  jisü1 ikhrumüi-(yi)2 duno3 thi4 -o-i-e 4
    Jesus1 died4 for 3, 5 us(incl. prn. & incl. pl.)2


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