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Verb Classification

Verb, in Bhumij, may be intransitive or transitive or causative. The intransitie verbs do not take objects, whereas transitive verbs take. The causative verbs also take objects as the transitive verbs but the causative verbs indicate that someone is causing an event or causing someone to perform an action directly or through an intermediary agency. The causative verbs are derived by adding either the prefix -a or the suffix -ic&i with transitive verb or intransitive verb. The adding of the prefix -a in the derivation of causative is found only in two verbs like jom ‘eat’ and nu?u ‘drink’.

 Intransitive verbs


‘to come’
sen ‘to go, to walk’
gi? ‘to die’
dhau ‘to run’
giti ‘to sleep’ 

Transitive verbs


‘to reap’
jom ‘to eat’
el ‘to see’
nu?u ‘to drink’
duraŋ ‘to sing’
sa?p ‘to catch’
ra?a ‘to call’
idi ‘to take’
jogaw ‘to look’ 

Causative verbs


‘to feed’
anu? ‘cause to drink’
lel-ii  ‘cause to see’
sen-ii ‘cause to walk’
jom-ii cause to eat. allow others to eat’
ha?t-ii  ‘cause to drive’



The verb, in Bhumij, makes three tense diferences viz., past, present and future. Sometimes, there may be more than one tense marker for a tense. 

Past tense

Bhumij has four markers for past tense. They are jan,l,k and ked.



lel-k-i-a-iŋ }

 ‘I saw a man’
aiŋ  hake lel-k-i-a-iŋ }  
a?e a?eke sa?p-k-i-a?e } ‘He caught him’
a?e a?ke sa?p-l-i-a?e }  
ako baba ir-l-a-ko ‘They reaped the paddy
aiŋ daru- a lel-l-a-iŋ ‘I saw atree’

The tense marker -ked alternates with the tense marker -l as in


ma? - ked-a-?e }

‘He cut the tree
a?e  darua  ’ ma? - l-a?e }  
a?e diri-ko-te  a bai-l-a-?e } ‘He built the house with stones’
a?e diri-k-o-te a bai-ked-a-?e }  

The tense marker -jan occurs with intransitive verbs.

1. soma seno-jan-a-?e
soma go-tense-cop-PT

 ‘Soma went’

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