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/th dh/
/tha:i/ [tha:i] ‘dish’
/dha:i/  [dha:i] ‘to succeed’
/thl/ [thl] ‘to bind’
/dhula/ [dhla] ‘dust’
/thuŋa/ [thŋa]  ‘to shoot’
/dhumaŋ/ [dhm^ŋ] ‘drum (made of mud)’
/kh gh/
/khaaw/ [kh^^w/ ‘to work hard’
/ghotaw/  [gh^w] ‘to happen’
/khawai/ [kh^wai] ‘valley’
/ghaw/ [gh^w] ‘wound’
/khaia/  [kh^ia] ‘short’
/ghai/ [gh^i]  ‘bell’

The occurrence of glottal stop in Bhumij was predictable. It occurred either in the word final position after a vowel or before a voiceless stop. In contemporary Bhumij, the glottal stop occurs in the intervocalic position also. There are instances where the word final glottal stop becomes [g] in the intervocal position as shown below:

čo? čo-g-en   ‘kiss oneself’
ma?  ma-g-en ‘cut oneself’
to? to-g-en ‘hit oneself

This shows that [?] is the allophone of [g]. In the contemporary Bhumij, a new environment has been developed due to the duplication of the vowel occurs after the glottal stop. This new development has made the glottal stop to occur in the inter vocal position which ultimately creating a situation to contrast with other velar stops. The duplication of the stem vowel may be seen here :

da:? da:?a ‘water’
bu?  bu?u ‘to bark’
hi?  hi?i ‘to come’

Because of this new development, the glottal stop became a new phoneme in this language.


Aliophonic distribution



All the short vowel phonemes get lowered when they occur between consonants. High vowel [i] became [I]; /e/ becomes [E]; /a/ becomes [^]; /o/ becomes []; and /u/ becomes []. This may be seen in the following illustrations.

/čina/  [čIna] ‘evidence’
/ilu/ [jIlu] ‘flesh’
/čee/ [čEe] ‘bird’
/etai/ [jEai] ‘somebody’
/kaji/ [k^ji] ‘word’
/hake/ [h^e] ‘axe’
/hon/ [hn] ‘child’
/moča/ [mča] ‘mouth’
/duraŋ/ [dr^ŋ] ‘song’
/buru/ [bru] ‘hill’



1. Unaspirated stop becomes tense when it occurs between vowels.

/topa/ [ta]  ‘to bury’




‘to close’


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