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Bhumij has 15 vowel phonemes , of these, i, i:, e, e:, e) are front vowels; u, u:, o, o:,, :, õ are back vowels; a, a:, ã are central vowels. i, c, a, o, u are short vowels and i: e:, a:, u: are long vowels. , ã, õ, are nasalized vowels while are limited in distribution.

There are 31 consonant phonemes, of these, 17 are stops; 4 are affricates, one is fricative; 4 are nasals, one is lateral and 2 are flaps; there are 2 semivowels. Of the 17 stops, 9 are aspirated and 8 are aspirated stops. Of the 9 unaspirated stops, 4 are voiced and 5 are voiceless. Of the 8 aspirated stops, 4 are voiceless and 4 are voiced. Of the 4 affricates, 2 are aspirated and 2 are unaspirated. one isvoiced and the other is voiceless in each category of affricates. There is only one voiceless fricative.


 List of Phonemes
Front Central Back
High i i: u u:
Mid e e: o o:
Lowermid: ù
Low : a a:


      BL. DL. AL.  Ret. PL. Vel. GL.
Unasp: Vl.  P t     k ?
Vd.    b   d ·   g  
Asp: Vl. Ph th    h   kh  
. Vd  bh dh   h   gh  
Unasp Vl.         č    
Affricates: Vd.          j    
Asp: Vl .          čh    
  Vd.         jh    
Fricative:   Vl.     s        
Nasals:    Vd.  m   n ¸   ŋ  
Lateral :    Vd.     l        
Flaps :   Vd.     r      
Glides :   Vd. w       y    

Bl : bilabial Vel :  Velar Unasp : Unaspirated
Dl :  dental Gl : glottal Asp : Aspirated
Al : Alveolar:  Vl voiceless    
Ret: Retroflex  Vd : voiced    
Pl :




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