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5. Word Formation

     5.0 The common morphological processes used in word formation are compounding and derivation. Of the two, compounding is a more common process.
5.1. Compounding :
     Compound forms are those derived by combining with a noun or a verb one or more free forms which end up in modifying relationship with the noun or the verb. The free forms combined with a noun are a noun, an adjective or a verb; and a free form combined with a verb.
     5.1.1. The nominal compounds are thus the combination of two or more nouns or the combination of a noun and an adjective, or the combination of a noun and a verb.
     (a)     N + N
              nao      ‘flower’    +    zk     ‘thread’       à       naozk                ‘garland’
              tenuk      ‘eye’       +    c      ‘water         à       nukc                    ‘tears’
     (b)     Adj + N
              tanak      ‘black’     +   nisó    ‘man’        à       tanaknisó              ‘sambo (negro)’
              ko        ‘horse’     +   ti?la     ‘small’   à        koti?la                ‘pony’
     (c)      N + V
              ita          ‘moon’    +    aya       ‘shine’          à        itaya        ‘moon light’
              c       ‘water’    +   aa      ‘to feel thirsty’      à   ca      ‘thirst
     Higher numerals are also found by compounds which combine the primary numerals as discussed already under Numerals.
     té       ‘ten’        +      puu      ‘five’   à      tépuu                  ‘fifteen’
     mec      ‘twenty’   +      ká          ‘one’      à      meceká                 ‘twentyone’
     samé    ‘thirty’      +      tenet      ‘seven’   à      samétenet             ‘thirtyseven’
     5.1.2. The verbal compounds are formed by combining two verbs. Both verbs drop their classificatory prefix when they are thus combined.
     apu      ‘to jump’      +      ata      ‘to cross’       à      puta             ‘top jump across’
     alep       ‘to cut’        +      ata      ‘to separate    à   lepta               ‘to cut off’
5.2. Derivation :
     Verbal nouns and agentive nouns are derived from verbs by adding the respective derivative suffixes and the abstract nouns are derived from adjectives by adding the relevant derivatives suffix.
     5.2.1. The suffix /-pa/ is added to the verbs to derive verbal nouns.
                   aci                    ‘to eat’                     acipa                                  ‘eating’
                   atu                   ‘to dig’                      atupa                                 ‘digging’
                   ao                   ‘to bite’                    aopa                                 ‘biting’
                   toksa                 ‘to break’                  toksapa                              ‘breaking’
                   lapsa                  ‘to cut’                    lapsapa                               ‘cutting’
5.2.2. The suffix /-e/ is added to the verbs to derive agentive nouns.
                   sták                ‘weave’                stáke                 ‘weaver’
                   takok                 ‘succeed’              takoke                    ‘successor’
5.2.3. The suffix /-n/ is added to the adjectives to derive abstract nouns.
                   tàcó                  ‘good’                   tàcón                  ‘goodness’
                   tu?lu                   ‘great’                   tu?lun                   ‘greatness’
                   ti?lu                    ‘small’                    ti?an                    ‘swmallness’





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