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A postposition can be formally defined as that sub-class of indeclinable which follow a noun/demonstrative but the combined form viz., the noun + the postposition, on the systematic axis would not occur in the noun/pronoun slots.
Particles have a great deal of freedom of occurrence. They could occur with a noun/adjective as in:

yekubeqó `tables’
yekube kiwiqó `good tables’ etc.

or may connect two words or phrases, as in:

imu eno ifo `my brother and my elder sister’
imu iFi eno ifoye śwe `my brother came and my elder sister went’

Hence all the indeclinable free forms other than the adjectives/adverbs/intensifiers and the postpositions form the particles in this language. No effort is made to sub-divide the particles into clitics, connectors, etc.
The nominal in Sema include all the grammatical classes that could form a constituent of a Noun Phrase. The constituents are : noun, pronoun including demonstrative Pronoun, numeral, adjective, post position, intensifier and a few particles. Of these, the occurrences of the post positions are discussed along with the discussion on the grammatical category of case. The adjectives, the intensifiers and the particles are discussed under the main head of indeclinable. Thus, this section discusses the occurrences of the nouns, the pronouns including the demonstrative pronouns and the numerals. In this we begin with the nouns.
3.2.1 Nouns
A noun was formally defined earlier as belonging to that grammatical class which on the paradigmatic axis is capable of taking gender and case markers and on the systematic axis is capable of being an i/c of the post positions, particles including the plural markers and functions as the nucleus of a noun phrase. A noun could also be the sole realization of a noun phrase. In the following sections, the morphological construction and the sub-grouping of the nouns are discussed. Morphological construction
The morphological construction of any grammatical class would be based on the inflectional features/bound forms that the particular class is capable of taking. As far as Sema is concerned at the morphological level, a noun is capable of showing opposition in gender and case relationships. For instance, some nouns show a three-way opposition in gender. These are: common, masculine and feminine genders; of these, only the latter two are marked, as in :

amsi `buffalo (common)’
awuFi `pea fowl (common)’
aqeu `servant (common)’
amsicö ¸ `he buffalo’
amsiqu `she buffalo (with issue)'
awuFidu `peacock’
awuFiqu `peahen (laid eggs)'
aqelyś `maid servant’
aqepś `male servant’

The nouns are also capable of showing case relationship as in

amsino `buffalo (agentive)’
aqeno `servant (agentive)’
aqelyśno `maid servant (agentive)'
akģlo `in the house’ (locative)'

From the illustrative examples give above, it is possible to set up the morphological construction of a noun which is :
Root    +    Gender    +    Case
This would give a total of 4 morphological construction, viz.

Root alone `akģ `house’/aqe `servant’
Root + gender `aqelyś `maid servant’
Root + case `aqeno `servant’ (agent)
Root + gender + case aqelyśno `maid servant’ (agent) etc. Sub-classification
The nouns in Sema were defined in the previous chapter as a subclass of nominal showing certain characteristic features. These features include the capability on the paradigmatic axis of taking gender, case, and the capability of showing a three-way opposition in a number and on the systematic axis the privilege







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