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It is a usual practice in dividing the grammars based on structural description into chapters on morphology and syntax, thereby distinguishing the patterns of the formation of the bound forms from that of the free forms. This, however, is not attempted here and therefore immediately after the setting up of the grammatical classes, each of the grammatical classes along with the grammatical categories that occur with the major classes like nominals, verb, etc. is discussed followed by a discussion on the patterns of the phrase, clause, sentence, etc. The setting up of the different grammatical classes are discussed in the following section.
3.1. Grammatical classes : Setting up of
A grammatical class may be defined as `a class of words sharing a pattern of behavior in inflection or in syntax or in both. The stems/words which follow one pattern of usage but do not follow another pattern may be designated as belonging to a grammatical class’ (Sreedhar 1974 : 93).
Depending upon whether or not a word/stem is capable of taking suffixes the words/stems in Sema are primarily divided into two viz. declinable and indeclinable. Thus those grammatical classes which are capable of taking suffixes form one class, viz., the class of declinable and the remaining form the other class, viz. the class of indeclinables. Each of these two sub-classes can be further sub-divided into a few sub-classes as in :
A. Declinable
(1) Nominals-

(a) nouns
(b) personal pronouns
(c) demonstrative pronouns and
(d) numerals and

(2) Verbals.
B. Indeclinable
(3) Adjectives
(4) Adverbs
(5) Intensifiers
(6) Post positions and
(7) Particles.
A brief discussion of these various grammatical classes along with the justification for setting up of these classes follows:
On the basis of certain shared features, i.e. the ability of taking certain types of suffixes as opposed to the others, the class of declinable can be broadly sub-divided into two. viz., the nominal and the verbal. Whereas the verbals are inflected for tense, mood, aspect etc., a feature not found with any other grammatical class, the nouns, the pronouns, the demonstratives and the numerals form a class of nominal sharing the privilege of taking case suffixes and/or preceding the post positions, which the verbal are incapable of.
Depending upon whether or not the grammatical classes that form the nominal could occur alone in its uninflected form in a NP, e.g., NP -> N, the nominal in the first instance could be sub grouped into two, viz., (1) those nominals that can occur in its uninflected form alone in a NP and (2) those that cannot. In this, all the nominals except the numerals are capable of occurring in their uninflected form alone in a NP, as in:

  Noun : apu pi `father said’
NP--> Pronoun : no pi `you said’
  Demonstrative : hie ilu `this (is) my field’

At the syntagmatic level, if a NP consists of both a numerals and a noun as in :

anu kini `two children’

The noun is the nucleus of the phrase. A numeral can precede a postposition, as in:

kini lono `from two'
akslakhķpe `with a stick’

A numeral may therefore be defined as that grammatical class which form a sub-class of nominal capable of taking case markers and preceding post positions, but are incapable of occurring in its uninflected form as the sole realization in a NP. And at the systematic level, the noun would be the nucleus of a NP consisting of a noun and a numeral.







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