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pucouno mlalo eno puthono z
`work in the day and sleep in the night (imp)’

In this section a description of the three types of sentences occurring in Sema was dealt with. We have so far discussed only sentences of an affirmative type. It is, however, possible to transform any affirmative sentence into interrogative and negative sentences.
The term transformational has engendered a good deal of unnecessary controversy and confusion in the recent literature on linguistics. It could be stated in a general sense rather than in the particular sense in which it is defined in any one theory that the deeper connections between sentences which cut across the surface grammar are transformational relationships and many of these relations were/are well recognized and handled statisfactorily in many of the traditional as well as the phrase structure grammars. In this section, the term transformation is used in the general sense. Beginning with the system of interrogation, it is proposed to discuss in this section, the pattern of the interrogative and negative sentences in Sema.
The interrogative sentences stand in contrast to declarative sentences by virtue of their modality, primarily because, just as in the case of the imperative, permissive moods, etc. which indicate the attitude/expectation of a speaker, the interrogative sentences could also indicate the expectation of a speaker. For instance, there are three types of yes/no question in Sema. Of these the first is an open question which do not indicate whether the speaker expects a yes/no answer. In the second and the third type, the speaker expects respectively a positive and a negative answer. It is, however treated here under transformation, primarily because it affects the entire sentence and not the verb alone, though the yes/no questions affect only the verb. In Sema, the syntantic distinction between declarative and interrogative sentences is associated with the employment of a few interrogative particles and interrogative pronouns. When interrogative particles alone are used for transforming a declarative into an interrogative sentence, the particles are post-posed to the declarative sentence, as in :
(a) noye pa ithi anì
`you know him’
noye pa ithi anì kesyá?
`do you know him?’
The interrogative particle ma substitutes kesya, for expressing respect to the person questioned. Such a respect elsewhere is not expressed in this language nor does the language have the system of `honorofic plural. Kesya usually occurs with people of inferior status and the neutral forms devoid of respect or disrespect are kema or kyà.
(b) hipawye okì hipawye oki kesya?
`this (is) your house’ `(is) this your house ?’
(c) paye axathi eúnisi anì paye axathi cúnisi anì kesya?
`he wants to eat a fruit’`does he want to eat a fruit?”
(d) noye mildo lakhì únanì noye mildo lakhì únanì kesya?
`he will walk a mile’ `will he walk a mile?” etc.
The illustrative examples of the interrogative sentences given above belong to what may be called the neutral or open class of questions anticipating either a yes/no answer, i.e., the person who questions is totally ignorant of the truth of the information he is seeking and as such the answer could be either a yes or a no, for instance, a neutral question like :
noye li kimiye cenì kesya?
`do you love her?
could usually bring forth either of the answers :
ye, kimiye, cenì
`yes, I love her’
1 2 3 4
(lit. yes, love habitually will)
1 2 3 4
moy, tisi cemo
`no, I do not love her’
1 2 3 4 5
(lit. no that do habitually not)
1 2 3 4 5
In addition to such neutral yes/no questions, Sema language for that matter, all the Naga languages - have devices whereby the one who questions already assumes/suspects that something has taken place/happened and merely wants a confirmation to this suspecision. In other words, the question would indicate whether the speaker anticipates a positive or a negative answer. The questions would, therefore, be worded differently depending upon whether he anticipates a positive or a negative confirmation, for instance if he anticipates a positive confirmation, the question would be :
noye kuchono li cenì kesya?
`do you love her?’
And the answer would usually be :
ye tisi cenì
`yes I do love her’
but if he was misinformed, the answer could be :
moy tisi cemo
`no I do not love her’
(lit. no, that do habitually not)
The same question could also be refuted more emphatically, as in :
moy, tiye kucho kumo
`no that is not true’







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