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Though uninflected, the adjectives in Sema are capable of showing degrees of comparison1 as in :
hatoliy ilimì azukiwi lakhì `Hatoli is a beautiful girl’
hatoliye ekili nuno azukiwiú `Hatoli is more beautiful than   Ekili’
hatoliye azukiwi ktú `Hatoli is the most beautiful girl’
The adjectives in Sema can in the first instance be sub-classified into two, viz., adjectives proper and the functional adjectives. The adjectives proper are differentiated from the functional adjectives by virtue of the fact that the latter either beong to, or are derived from another grammatical class but can function, like any of the adjectives proper, as a determiner in a determiner-determined2 construction, as in:
ilimi kiwi
`good dame’ (adj-proper)
ilimi kini
`two dames (numeral)
ilimi nuyakew
`smiling dame’ (participial)
ilim ìkì
`dame’s house’ (genitive)
pa ilimì
`his dame’ (genitive)
ilimì hipaw
`this dame’ (demonstrative) etc.
The adjectives proper can also be differentiated from the functional adjectives, on the basis of their ability/inability to form constructions with the intensifiers i.e., whereas adjectives proper can form endocentric constructions with intensifiers, the functional adjectives cannot, as in :
yono akc
`very black’
yono kiwi
`very good’
kutumo kt
`too much’ etc.
(a) Adjectives proper :
The adjectives proper can be broadly sub-grouped into three viz. qualitative adjective, quantitative adjective and colour adjectives. On the syntagmatic axis, it is possible to define the three sub-classes of adjectives, for instance, both the quantitatives and

1 The morphological construction of the degrees of comparison is discussed at the end of this section.

2 The terms determiner-determined construction is used in the same sense as that of modifier-modified construction where the determined /modified item is the head or the nucleus of the construction and the determiner/modifier is the satelllite of the nucleus. In this section, the determiner/modifier/satellite is an adjective including a functional adjective and the determined/modified/nucleus is the noun head. qualitative adjectives are usually post-posed to the noun head whereas the colour adjectives are never post-posed to the noun head as in :

ilimì kutumo `many girls’
ilimì kiwi `good girl’
akc ilimì `black girl’ etc.
Whereas a qualitative adjective selects, yöFono `very’ as an intensifier a quantitative adjective selects kötö `very’ as an intensifier, as in :
yono kiwi `very good’
kutumo kt `very much’ etc.
On the basis of these information, these three sub-groups of adjectives can now be formally defined.
Quantitative adjectives.- Thequantitative adjectives form that sub-group of adjectives which are usually post-posed to the noun head and selects the intensifier kötö `very’. Structurally, when a quantitative adjective is in construction with a noun, the noun usually does not take the plural marker, i.e., the plural marker is optionally deleted as the plurality is indicated by the quantitative adjective, as in :
akì `house’
`akìqò `houses’
akì kutumo
`many houses’
apu kutumo
`many fathers’
ilimì kutumo
`many dames’ etc.
Qualitative adjectives.- The qualitative adjectives form a subgroup of adjectives proper that refer to the quality of the noun head. Structurally when a noun is in construction with a qualitative adjective, the adjective is usually post-posed to the noun head and if the noun head is in the plural, the qualitative adjective, rather than the noun takes the plural marker. While a qualitative adjective is also capable of showing different degrees of comparison, a quantitative adjective is incapable of showing degrees of comparison. If a noun is in construction with both the qualitative and quantitative adjectives, the qualitative adjective precedes the quantitative adjectives as in :
ilimì kiwi `good dame’
ilimì kiwiqó
`good dames’
apu kiwiqó
`good fathers’
ilimì kiwi kutumo `many good dames’







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