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1.2.2.  Vowels :

The features that are used in the analysis and classification of vowels are -


The part of the tongue used in the articulation. Here we get three points of articulation: Front, Central and Back.

The height to which the articulator is raised. It is necessary to set up only three heights for classification : High, Mid and Low, since all other intermediate heights are predictable.


The type of release : Oral and Nasalized. There are other features which, however, are predictable.


State of glottis : All vowels are voiced.

Position of lips : Rounded and Unrounded. The front and the high central vowels are unrounded whereas the back and the non-high central vowels are rounded.
High  Mid Low
FRONT (Unrounded)
          Oral ... i  e
          Nasalized ...  
CENTRAL - Unrounded
          (Oral) ... i
          Oral ... a
          Nasalized ... ć
BACK (Rounded)
          Oral ... u  o

1.2.3.  Consonants:
The analysis and classification of the consonants involves the following features :


A seven-way division of the place of articulation viz., bilabial ( BI), apicodental (AD), apicoalveolar (AA) apicopalatal (AP), frontopalatal (FP), dorsovelar (DV), and glottal (GL).


A seven-way division of the manner of articulation, viz., stop, affricate, fricative, nasal, lateral, trill and approximant.


A two-way division of the state of vocal cords viz., voiced and voiceless. This feature is an intraclass feature and the contrast exists only for stops, affricates and fricatives. The others are always voiced

These features give rise to eighteen consonants

Stop :
    Voiceless p t k
    Voiced b d g
Affricate :
    Voiceless c
    Voiced j
Fricative :
    Voiceless s h
    Voiced z
Nasal m n
Lateral l
Trill r
Approximant w y




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