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{-Ung-} is also added to animate noun stem to form the diminutive i.e., young one of the source noun and it can take the morphological suffixes for both the genders. It is not very productive. For example:




‘male puppy’


‘female puppy’

Compound Nouns


Certain nouns are formed by two elements functioning like a single unit and there is some morphophonemic alteration in this process. Compound nouns in the language are formed variously such as by partical reduplication of the noun stems termed as echo-words, by joining two constituents having similar meanings and by linking affixes. All these are described below: 

   (i) Echo-Words:

Such words are formed in this language by altering the first consonant to /š/ in the second reduplicated element and there is no change in the first element which is meaningful. The second element is only the echo-form does not occur by itself, extends the meaning of the stem like ‘such things etc.’ A few examples are :


‘gossip etc.’


‘cattle etc.’


‘he-goat etc.’


‘water etc.’


‘story etc.’


‘boys etc.’

roi-šo ‘bread etc.’



In this type both the elements have similar meanings or both are synonms but these elements occur in the same order. The second element simply extends the meaning of the first element. A few examples are:









There are some compound nouns formed with the linking affix such as {-r-} taking the gender-number suffix of the following nouns. Some kinship terms are formed in this way in which two kinship nouns are linked with the suffix {r-} and in the first element there is some morphophonemic change. A few examples are : 

mtrero pài 

‘step brother’

mtreri b  

‘step sister’

where as/matre/ 

‘step mother’

Besides some other compound nouns denoting kinships are formed by {-er} linking affix in which the alternant of the first element is used. (Their origin may be from genitive phrase). Examples are :

phpher b  

‘father’s sister’s daughter’

phpher pài

‘father’s sister’s son’

where as /phupào/ ‘father’s sister’s husband’


‘father’s sister’

/pter pà

‘father’s brother’s son’

where as/pItIyo/


‘father’s brother’

mler pài 

‘mother’s brother’s son’

where as /mamo/ 

is ‘mother’s brother’

mser pài

‘‘mother’s sister’s son’

mser b  

‘mother’s sister’s daughter’

where as/mso/ 


‘mother’s sister’s husband’






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